To craft or not to craft

Veerle Brenninkmeijer (Social and Organizational Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands)
Marleen Hekkert-Koning (Social and Organizational Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands)

Career Development International

ISSN: 1362-0436

Publication date: 11 May 2015



The purpose of this paper is to examine relationships between regulatory focus, job crafting, work engagement and perceived employability. Regulatory focus theory distinguishes between promotion-focused individuals, who strive for growth and development, and prevention-focussed individuals, who strive for security. Job crafting refers to changes that individuals make in their work to meet their own preferences and needs. It was expected that job crafting would mediate associations between promotion focus and work-related outcomes.


Questionnaires were collected among 383 registered candidates from a consultancy organization for recruitment, assessment and coaching that operates within the branches pharmacy, medical devices, food, and healthcare. Results were analyzed using structural equation modeling.


Crafting structural and social resources were positively related to work engagement and employability, whereas negative relationships were found for crafting hindering demands. Promotion focus was associated with crafting resources and challenging demands, while prevention focus was associated with crafting hindering demands. Job crafting also mediated some of the relationships between promotion focus, prevention focus and work outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

This study provided insight into possible antecedents and outcomes of job crafting. Unfortunately, this study used a cross-sectional design.

Practical implications

These insights may help managers to encourage beneficial job crafting behaviors, while taking individuals’ foci into account.


This study has provided insight in the relationships between regulatory focus, job crafting, work engagement, and perceived employability.



Brenninkmeijer, V. and Hekkert-Koning, M. (2015), "To craft or not to craft", Career Development International, Vol. 20 No. 2, pp. 147-162.

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