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The mediational effect of regulatory focus on the relationships between mindfulness and job satisfaction and turnover intentions

Martha C. Andrews (Department of Management, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina, USA)
K. Michele Kacmar (Department of Management, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas, USA)
Charles Kacmar (Department of Information Systems, Statistics, and Management Science, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA)

Career Development International

ISSN: 1362-0436

Article publication date: 2 September 2014




The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of mindfulness as a predictor of the two components of regulatory focus theory (RFT): promotion and prevention focus. It further examines promotion focus and prevention focus as mediators of the mindfulness-job satisfaction and mindfulness-turnover intentions relationships. Finally, job satisfaction is also examined as a mediator of the mindfulness-turnover intentions relationship.


The model was tested using data collected via a snowball approach. Online surveys were distributed to undergraduate students enrolled in a business course. Students were then given the opportunity to earn extra credit by sending the survey to potential respondents. The relationships were tested using structural equation modeling.


Support was found for four of the six hypotheses. Prevention focus did not negatively mediate the relationship between mindfulness and job satisfaction as well as the relationship between mindfulness and turnover intentions.

Research limitations/implications

One limitations of this research is the placement of mindfulness as an antecedent to promotion and prevention focus. Another plausible alternative is to consider mindfulness as a consequence. An additional limitation is the use of a snowball sampling technique. Future research should examine these findings using employees of a single organization.


This research theoretically and empirically links RFT and mindfulness. This study also adds to the limited research empirically linking RFT and turnover intentions, both directly and indirectly via job satisfaction. Finally, this research extends previous research that established the positive relationship between mindfulness and job satisfaction by examining the mindfulness-job satisfaction-turnover intentions relationship.



C. Andrews, M., Michele Kacmar, K. and Kacmar, C. (2014), "The mediational effect of regulatory focus on the relationships between mindfulness and job satisfaction and turnover intentions", Career Development International, Vol. 19 No. 5, pp. 494-507.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2014, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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