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Passion in hybrid entrepreneurship: the impact of entrepreneurial teams and tenure

Carin Nordström (School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden AND Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden)
Charlotta Agneta Sirén (Global Center Entrepreneurship & Innovation, Institute of Technology Management, University of St.Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland)
Sara Thorgren (Department of Entrepreneurship & Innovation, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden)
Joakim Wincent (Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden)

Baltic Journal of Management

ISSN: 1746-5265

Article publication date: 4 April 2016




The purpose of this paper is to draw on the theory of choice overload to examine how entrepreneurial tenure and involvement in entrepreneurial teams influence passion for engaging in entrepreneurship.


A survey was administered to 262 Swedish hybrid entrepreneurs, which refers to individuals who engage in entrepreneurship while also maintaining wage work; this arrangement is becoming more and more common in the Nordic economies. Hypotheses proposed associations between the entrepreneurial tenure (the length of engagement in the side business) and entrepreneurial teams (leading the business with one or more team members) with passion for entrepreneurship. Logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses.


Results from logistic regression support the hypotheses with three findings: the longer the individual has had the side business, the less likely passion to be the main motive behind entrepreneurship; passion is less likely to be the main motive behind entrepreneurship among those who are part of an entrepreneurial team; and, involvement in an entrepreneurial team strengthens the negative association between entrepreneurial tenure and passion for entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

The data are limited to the creative sector in Sweden and to the hybrid entrepreneurship context.

Practical implications

The results support the impact of choice overload and the notions that entrepreneurship passion will decrease the longer the business is up running and if the venturing occurs with another team member. In practice, this means that interventions for re-kindling passion in entrepreneurship should focus on dealing with choice overload under conditions of long-term tenure and team-funded ventures. If entrepreneurs want to maintain high levels of passion, quick and isolated entrepreneurial processes reduce the choice overload that may threaten maintaining a high passion for entrepreneurship.


This study is the first to apply choice theory to an entrepreneurship context and to find support for possible negative effects of choice overload on passion for entrepreneurship.



Nordström, C., Sirén, C.A., Thorgren, S. and Wincent, J. (2016), "Passion in hybrid entrepreneurship: the impact of entrepreneurial teams and tenure", Baltic Journal of Management, Vol. 11 No. 2, pp. 167-186.



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Copyright © 2016, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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