This study aims to evaluate in the Portuguese population the consumption of packaged food (PF) vs non-packaged food, the associated factors and to estimate the contribution of specific food groups to the use of packaging materials.
A representative sample of the population was evaluated within the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2015–2016 (n = 5,811, 3 months-84y). Dietary data were collected by two non-consecutive food diaries (children) or 24-h recalls, using a software program which integrates FoodEx2—Food classification system. Food packaging materials were measured according to the amount of PF by linear regression. The results were analyzed considering the distribution of the Portuguese population.
The reported amount of PF was 1,530 g/person/day (57%), in which PF in plastic was the most reported (69%), mainly associated with “Non-alcoholic beverages” (38%). “Fruit and vegetables” food group is most frequently reported without a package (35%). Men consumed significantly more quantity of PF for all materials, excepted for “paperboard/paper”, but also significantly more quantity of food without a package (β = 135.3 [95%IC: 63.7; 207.0]). Children and adolescents consumed more quantity of PF in multilayer materials (β = 177.8 [95%IC: 154.8; 200.9]) and significantly less quantity of food without a package (β = −343.8 [95%IC: −408.9; −278.6]). Also, more educated people consume more food without a package (β = 106.9 [95%IC: 33.2; 180.7]).
The Portuguese population presents a large consumption of PF. Male population and adults were identified as groups with higher consumption of PF.
The IAN-AF 2015–2016 had institutional support from the General Directorate of Health (DGS), the Regional Health Administration Departments, the Central Administration of the Health System (ACSS) and the European Food Safety Authority (CFT/EFSA/DCM/2012/01-C03). The researchers acknowledge all these institutions and all people involved in all phases of survey, as well as the participants.Financial support: The IAN-AF 2015 – 2016 received funding from the EEA Grants Program, Public Health Initiatives (grant number: PT06-000088SI3). This particular study was supported through FEDER from the Operational Programme Factors of Competitiveness – COMPETE and through national funding from the Foundation for Science and Technology – FCT (Portuguese Ministry of Education and Science) under the project “FOCAcCIa: Exposure to food additives and contaminants from food processing and packaging: Defining patterns and their effects on adiposity and cognitive function from childhood to adolescence” (POCI-01–0145-FEDER-031949). The funding institutions had no role in the design, analysis or writing of this article.Declarations of interest: none
Costa, S.A., Vilela, S., Correia, D., Severo, M., Lopes, C. and Torres, D. (2021), "Consumption of packaged foods by the Portuguese population: type of materials and its associated factors", British Food Journal, Vol. 123 No. 2, pp. 833-846. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-07-2020-0584
Emerald Publishing Limited
Copyright © 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited