Sustainable halal food supply chain management in a small rentier halal market

Mohamed Syazwan Ab Talib (UBD School of Business and Economics, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, Brunei Darussalam) (Malaysia Institute of Transport, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia)
Mohd Hafiz Zulfakar (Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia)

Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research

ISSN: 1985-9899

Article publication date: 18 April 2023

2024

Abstract

Purpose

There is limited knowledge of the sustainable halal food supply management in Brunei Darussalam (Brunei), although it is reputable in the halal economy and advocates the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Therefore, this paper highlights issues faced in a small, rentier halal market and proposes sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) initiatives for halal-certified food companies in Brunei.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws data from published academic research and employs a normative and narrative assessment of SSCM and halal supply chain literature.

Findings

Four normative SSCM initiatives and propositions that could be implemented by Brunei halal-certified food businesses in achieving the SDGs are highlighted: responsible sourcing, environmental purchasing, sustainable packaging and green transportation.

Practical implications

This viewpoint paper provides a basis for achieving the “Brunei Vision 2035” through a sustainable supply chain lens that may increase well-being and develop a productive and sustainable economy. It also lays a foundation for realising the SDGs, specifically Goal 12 of Sustainable Consumption and Production.

Originality/value

The dedicated attention to smaller halal markets, such as Brunei, would enrich the literature, reveal unforeseen issues or address gaps in the domains of SSCM and halal food supply chains.

Keywords

Citation

Ab Talib, M.S. and Zulfakar, M.H. (2023), "Sustainable halal food supply chain management in a small rentier halal market", Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/AGJSR-11-2022-0251

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2023, Mohamed Syazwan Ab Talib and Mohd Hafiz Zulfakar

License

Published in Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode


1. Introduction

Halal, an Arabic word, means permissible in English and relates to the Islamic lifestyle and Muslim food consumption. The halal concept has transcended religious tenets and permeated various business domains, such as marketing (Wilson & Liu, 2010), finance (Hayat, den Butter, & Kock, 2013), banking (Butt & Aftab, 2013), travel (Battour & Ismail, 2016) and logistics (Talib & Hamid, 2014) in recent decades. This permeation reflects the potential and high industry demand for halal and Islamic economies.

The halal industry, valued at approximately USD 2.02tr, is a leading global consumer market (DinarStandard, 2020). Additionally, the halal food sector is worth USD 1.17tr, contributed by the rapidly growing Muslim population (Hackett & Lipka, 2018; Vanany, Soon, Maryani, & Wibawa, 2020). The optimistic non-Muslim consumers' acceptance (Wilkins, Butt, Shams, & Pérez, 2019), rising consumer awareness of ethical consumption (Billah, Rahman, & Hossain, 2020) and growing global halal practices adoption among food companies and brands (Butt, Rose, Wilkins, & Ul Haq, 2017) also contribute to the growing halal food market. Consequently, these factors have increased the demand for halal foods.

Despite its vigorous growth and enormous potential, the halal food sector generates waste and pollution, jeopardising environmental sustainability. Nonetheless, there are limited data to corroborate this claim. Previous literature depicted that food surplus and wastage are growing problems that various industries face due to the widespread availability of food (Huang, Liu, & Hsu, 2020). Similarly, Sulaiman, Othman, Baharuddin, Mokhtar, and Tabatabaei (2014) postulated that the growing Muslim population increases the halal food demand, inducing food wastage further.

Various halal food sectors and supply chain management have overlooked environmental impacts and sustainable practices. For example, Baran (2021) indicated no halal-themed business sustainability studies between 2010 and 2018. Similarly, Secinaro and Calandra (2020) postulated that sustainability measures were neglected. Sustainability efforts and initiatives in the halal food sector must be investigated (Secinaro & Calandra, 2020). Opportunely, there has been recent literature on halal businesses and sustainability. Haleem, Khan, and Khan (2021), Khan, Haleem, and Khan (2022), and Rejeb, Rejeb, and Zailani (2021), for instance, established a correlation between the halal food supply chain and the development of environmentally friendly ecosystems.

Therefore, this paper aims to answer the call for more sustainability-driven halal food research through a sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) lens. Specifically, the piece takes on a viewpoint approach that conceptualises and suggests propositions that underline the possible SSCM initiatives that could be implemented on a firm level. Additionally, this treatise intends to respond to Talib's (2021) and Talib and Wahab's (2021) recommendations for more studies on less-researched halal markets, such as Brunei Darussalam (Brunei). Fundamentally, it attempts to provide a narrative outlook and call into question ‘what are the possible SSCM initiatives that could be implemented among halal-certified food companies in the Sultanate?’ This paper argues that dedicated attention to lesser or smaller halal markets would enrich the literature, possibly unearth unforeseen issues or address gaps in the study area. Ideally, this article aspires for more halal-certified food companies in Brunei to practice SSCM and perhaps inform concerned stakeholders on the possible strategic and sustainable supply chain approaches.

Following this Introduction section, the remaining part of this viewpoint proceeds as follows. The second section details the overview and issues surrounding the Brunei halal food sector. Subsequently, the third section specifies the sustainability movement and the need for sustainable halal food supply chains (SHFSC). Then, the fourth section deliberates on sustainable supply chain initiatives and underlines several propositions relevant to Brunei's halal food sector. Lastly, the fifth section concludes by summarising the deliberations, addressing several limitations and suggesting actions for future research.

2. Overview and issues in the Brunei halal food sector

Brunei is an Islamic Constitutional Sultanate state in Southeast Asia with around 432,000 people (Musa, 2019). Brunei is the second wealthiest nation in Southeast Asia after Singapore (Hamdan & Hoon, 2019), with a gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of approximately BND 36,500 (Department of Economic Planning and Statistics, 2021). The primary revenue source is oil and natural gas production and export – making Brunei a rentier state. Conversely, this high petroleum dependency is vulnerable to volatile global crude oil market prices (Müller, 2016). Consequently, the Brunei government recognises the urgent need to decrease reliance on non-sustainable energy revenues and diversify its industries (Musa, 2019).

The Brunei government has identified the global halal industry as a lucrative sector to reinvigorate and sustain the economy. Hamdan and Hoon (2019) postulated that the Brunei halal food sector primarily stimulates economic growth and attracts foreign investors. Kon (2018) highlighted that the halal food market generated approximately BND 103 million in revenue despite being a small market. According to the 2019 to 2020 State of the Global Islamic Economy Report, Brunei is a prominent halal food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and tourism producer (DinarStandard, 2019). Moreover, the Brunei halal standards, logo (see Figure 1) and food certification are widely recognised and trusted, serving as an economic development tool to establish their global halal market position (Miskam, Hamid, & Othman, 2018; Kifli, 2019).

There are several drawbacks faced in the effort to leverage the halal economy. Firstly, Brunei imports most halal food products from Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Australia and the United Kingdom (Talib, 2021). The heavy reliance on importing halal food is attributed to geographical limitations, which are unsuitable for cattle farming (Khalid, Haji Masr, Muhammad, & Pang, 2018; Talib, 2021). Resultantly, importing halal food generates a substantial carbon footprint. Recent studies have elucidated that the food supply chain significantly influences carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and increases carbon footprint (Ferguson Aikins & Ramanathan, 2020; Ribal, Estruch, Clemente, Fenollosa, & Sanjuán, 2019; Striebig, Smitts, & Morton, 2019; Yang and Meng, 2020). Therefore, a high long-term dependency on imported halal food products is unsustainable.

The Brunei halal food industry generates food and municipal waste (Malik, 2011; Shams, Juani, & Guo, 2014). The World Bank Solid Waste Management Report indicates that Brunei generates 216 tonnes of solid waste daily and is expected to increase to 307 tonnes by 2050 (Kaza, Yao, Bhada-Tata, & van Woerden, 2018). Food wastage and unsustainable manufacturing practices are significant issues often overlooked and overshadowed by marketing publicities (Haleem et al., 2021). The carbon footprint and halal food wastage indicate that business organisations and the public sector ignore SSCM practices, such as recycling food packaging, appropriate food scrap disposal and green transportation.

Collectively, the country’s effort to be economically and environmentally sustainable contradicts the high dependency on food importation and unsustainable food waste and practices. Therefore, to achieve economic prosperity, protection of the environment, a sustainable ecosystem, and remain a competitive halal food sector, supply chain members in Brunei should practice a more sustainable supply chain approach cohesively.

3. Sustainability and sustainable halal food supply chain

Sustainability is a viable international socioeconomic system that persists over time (Costanza & Patten, 1995). Costanza and Patten (1995) postulated that a balanced economy and environment are imperative for survival in the dynamic business landscape. Additionally, it is vital to cultivate equitable natural resources and effectively distribute them to the current and future generations.

The definition of sustainability has evolved (Glavič and Lukman, 2007), and a universal definition proves to be a challenge (Salas-Zapata & Ortiz-Muñoz, 2019). Consequently, this paper utilises the UN definition of sustainability as “meeting the current needs without compromising the future generation's ability to meet their own needs” (www.un.org). The supply network stakeholders must balance viable distribution practices and environmental preservation (Feng, Lai, & Zhu, 2022; Tseng, Islam, Karia, Fauzi, & Afrin, 2019; Wu & Pagell, 2011). According to Wu and Pagell (2011), organisations should aim to strike a balance between supply chain operation and continuous improvement with sustainable social and environmental aspects. More recently, Feng et al. (2022) concluded that the pressure to harmonise supply chain operation, environmental preservation and demand from market and regulatory requirements further signify the need to compromise the operation-environment faction.

Aside from the conventional sustainable outlook, literature has anchored sustainability with religious callings (Filho, Dahms, & Consorte-McCrea, 2018; Tomalin, Haustein, & Kidy, 2019). For instance, Islam advocates sustainable practices like other religions (Aboul-Enein, 2018; Muhamad, Syihab, & Achour, 2019). In the Quran, Allah commands devotees to protect the environment and prevent wastage. Table 1 illustrates the Almighty's decrees, such as forbidding wastage, opposing environmental destruction and encouraging moderation, aligning with sustainability.

Halal food has been gradually recognised as an ethical consumption symbol due to increased food consumption awareness (Billah et al., 2020). Subsequently, the demand for additional SHFSC is rising. Haleem et al. (2021) postulated that SHFSC is an ethical, fair, humane and responsible farm-to-fork approach that ensures effective sharia-compliant halal food product distribution. Nonetheless, the SHFSC implementation can holistically influence the economy, society and the environment.

Rezai, Mohamed, and Shamsudin (2015, p. 11) elucidated that sustainable practices, such as clean and hygienic processes, food safety, environmentally friendly and animal welfare, are associated with halal principles and production. Moreover, Khan et al. (2022) depicted that the halal food supply network is correlated with consumer confidence, trust and product retention. This paper also indicated that the demand for halal product safety, quality and integrity encouraged organisations to employ sustainable halal practices. Therefore, the SHFCS practices will benefit the industries and consumers.

Despite establishing initial halal and sustainable practices, additional efforts must be undertaken to promote sustainable halal practices. For instance, there is various SHFSC literature studies from large halal markets, such as Malaysia (Ali & Suleiman, 2016; Rezai et al., 2015) and India (Khan et al., 2022). Consequently, additional research must be applied to smaller halal markets such as Brunei to obtain comprehensive knowledge. The following section highlights the sustainable initiatives that could be implemented in halal-certified Brunei food companies.

4. Proposed sustainable supply chain initiatives

This section provides conceptual information on SSCM initiatives to ensure Brunei SHFSC. The four initiatives are (1) responsible sourcing, (2) environmental purchasing, (3) sustainable packaging and (4) green transportation. In addition, this section will recommend four propositions that could be critical in facilitating decision-making.

4.1 Responsible sourcing

In its basic definition, sourcing is finding and choosing strategic partners for a continuous and effective supply chain collaboration (Talluri & Narasimhan, 2004). According to Talluri and Narasimhan (2004), sourcing is vital in the supply chain for a seamless operation where businesses can access crucial materials and resources to ensure adequate and timely supplies and satisfy customer demand. Fundamentally, sourcing aims to optimise a firm’s competitive advantage and that of its suppliers and partners and capitalise on the extended supply chain network (Kotabe & Murray, 2004).

Furthermore, as businesses and governments are geared toward more sustainable and environmentally cautious undertakings, the term ‘responsible sourcing’ has emerged (Chen, 2022; Guo, Lee, & Swinney, 2016; van den Brink, Kleijn, Tukker, & Huisman, 2019). Responsible sourcing is achieving social, environmental and economic outcomes from sustainable practices (Carter & Rogers, 2008). The three outcomes are based on Elkington's (1998) triple bottom line notion where sustainability efforts should be channelled toward symbiotic impact between people, planet and profit. According to Zorzini, Hendry, Huq, and Stevenson (2015), profit alone is inadequate for firms to remain competitive in the current demanding business landscape. Pursuing sustainable sourcing should have a synergy between firms’ proactiveness, organisational culture and values, technological application and support from the government (Carter & Rogers, 2008; Glass, Achour, Parry, & Nicholson, 2012; Guo et al., 2016; Zorzini et al., 2015).

Aside from the actors in implementing and achieving responsible sourcing, the feasible approach should also be considered. Efforts such as local sourcing, collaborative sourcing through supplier relationship management, multi-sourcing from trustworthy suppliers and buy-back contracts are valuable approaches to sourcing responsibly (Ambekar, Kapoor, Prakash, & Patyal, 2019; Guo et al., 2016; Schneider & Wallenburg, 2012). Taken together, halal-certified food companies should reconsider sourcing from international suppliers and opt for local sources. This approach would then reduce CO2 emissions from the heavy importation of food supplies into the country. Therefore, the paper offers this proposition:

Proposition 1.

For the halal food industry to be sustainable, firms must focus on implementing responsible sourcing approaches, as doing so could have societal, environmental and economic repercussions.

4.2 Environmental purchasing

Purchasing is synonymous with procurement and sourcing, and the interchangeable use is often contested (Miemczyk, Johnsen, & Macquet, 2012; Trent & Monczka, 2003). However, this study depicts purchasing as a separate function from sourcing, consistent with Trent and Monczka's (2003) view that purchasing and sourcing have distinctive focus. This is because purchasing is concerned with economic transactions between buyers and suppliers. In contrast, sourcing involves coordinating common commodities and materials across multiple locations and supply chains (Trent and Monczka, 2003). Therefore, this piece argues that purchasing is successive to sourcing functions where businesses first find halal-certified materials, and only then do purchasing and economic transactions occur.

Purchasing is integral in supply network administration and impacts goods and services coordination and stakeholder collaboration (Carr & Smeltzer, 1999; Leenders, Nollet, & Ellram, 1994). Over the years, purchasing has become crucial for managing supply chains, specifically in sustainable strategic or environmental purchasing (Adobor & McMullen, 2014; Johnsen, Miemczyk, & Howard, 2017). This viewpoint adopts the definition by Carter and Carter (1998, p. 660) that depicted environmental purchasing as a “supply chain management involvement to facilitate recycling, reuse and resource reduction”.

According to Vörösmarty, Dobos, and Tátrai (2011), organisations adopt environmental purchasing for three reasons: (1) to avoid unfavourable outcomes (negative publicity or legislative penalisation), (2) to comply with industry norms or competition and (3) to benefit from financial and non-financial sustainability implications. Consumer pressure can instigate organisations to employ a sustainable approach. Given the prevalent use of the Internet, consumers are now more aware, engaging and environmentally conscious when purchasing online due to the Internet (Gazzola, Colombo, Pezzetti, & Nicolescu, 2017). Furthermore, local governmental and international pressures compel businesses to practice sustainable purchasing. For example, firms in the United States of America (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK) employ sustainable purchasing and supply networks due to legislative demands (Giunipero, Hooker, & Denslow, 2012; Thomson & Jackson, 2007). Accordingly, the Brunei public, consumers and external stakeholders must demand that halal-certified food companies enforce stricter SHFSC policies, encourage SSCM and practice environmental purchasing.

Pullman & Wikoff (2017) elucidated that environmental purchasing practices through local sourcing could reduce food waste and protect the environment. Similarly, Arora, Arora, Sivakumar, and Burke (2020) demonstrated that environmental purchasing measures could reduce waste and pollution, such as purchasing recycled and lightweight packaging and supplier collaborative efforts. Various literature depicted that environmental purchasing practices significantly influence economic and social performance (Arora et al., 2020; Laosirihongthong, Adebanjo, & Choon Tan, 2013; Vijayvargy, Thakkar, & Agarwal, 2017; Younis, Sundarakani, & Vel, 2016; Zailani, Jeyaraman, Vengadasan, & Premkumar, 2012). For example, Zailani et al. (2012) postulated that sustainable initiatives contribute to positive financial revenues, improved stakeholder image and relationships and reduced operating costs. Therefore, Brunei halal-certified food companies should adopt environmental purchasing to protect the environment and enhance business performance. Thus, this paper develops the following proposition:

Proposition 2.

Applying environmental purchasing, if done effectively and efficiently, may result in legitimising business, projecting a positive image and improving performance, which then supports sustainable objectives.

4.3 Sustainable packaging

Packaging has a substantial significance within the logistics and supply network management sectors. The packaging interface in supply chains considerably impacts an organisation's logistics, marketing and environmental functions (Hellström & Saghir, 2007). Nevertheless, packaging contributes to waste and pollution (Pauer, Wohner, Heinrich, & Tacker, 2019). Despite the negative stakeholder connotation and pressure, supply chain industries have started producing sustainable packaging to protect the environment (Pauer et al., 2019; Verghese & Lewis, 2007). Conversely, businesses have utilised measures, such as redesigning packaging design and functionality (García-Arca & Prado, 2008), using innovative, sustainable packaging (Chen, Brahma, Mackay, Cao, & Aliakbarian, 2020) and environmentally friendly or bio-renewable packaging (Chaichana, 2020). These measures can reduce food waste (Brennan et al., 2021; Siracusa & Rosa, 2018).

Sustainable packaging initiatives require various supply chain stakeholder support to be positively viable. For instance, government policies and regulations drive sustainable packaging among businesses and consumers (Meherishi, Narayana, & Ranjani, 2019). Furthermore, top management support is imperative to encourage and sustain sustainable packaging usage and practices on a firm level (Gardas, Raut, & Narkhede, 2019).

Zailani et al. (2012) postulated that sustainable packaging significantly influences economic and social performance, encouraging more organisations to practice SSCM. Moreover, through pre-emptive and integrated sustainable packaging operations, organisations can increase operational performance and competitiveness (Afif, Rebolledo, & Roy, 2022; García-Arca, González-Portela Garrido, & Prado-Prado, 2017). Therefore, governmental support and top management encouragement are vital for organisations to adopt sustainable packaging, leading to sustainable performance.

Meherishi et al. (2019) elucidated that additional efforts must be undertaken toward sustainable packaging implementation in developing countries as the current literature is predominantly concentrated in Western developed countries. This study postulated that sustainable packaging research should expand into different economies and industries to encourage additional implementation and accelerate circular economy efforts. Therefore, sustainable packaging should be a viable solution for Brunei's upstream and downstream SHFSC. Based on the above deliberation, the paper proposes:

Proposition 3.

When halal-certified food companies utilise sustainable packaging in the supply chain, it could help to reduce environmental degradation and potentially influence economic, social and environmental performance.

4.4 Green transportation

Transportation is the driving force in supply chain management and aids in goods and people's movement from one location to another (Speranza, 2018). Björklund (2011, p. 12) utilises the term ‘green transportation' or a ‘transportation service that reduces negative implications on human and environmental health compared to competing transportation services. This study highlighted the role of sustainable transportation that encompasses regular vehicle functions and reduces adverse environmental impacts.

Larger, sophisticated and convenient transportation benefits the supply chain but contributes to environmental degradation (Raza, Shah, & Sharif, 2019; Speranza, 2018; Tiwari, Khalfaoui, Saidi, & Shahbaz, 2020). Nevertheless, transportation is becoming a part of sustainable environmental initiatives, and governmental, business and consumer efforts have simultaneously altered the outlook where sustainable supply chains and transportation advancement.

Over the years, transport manufacturers, operators and consumers have enjoyed diverse sustainable and green transport, such as electric vehicles (Speranza, 2018). For example, Colicchia, Marchet, Melacini, and Perotti (2013) and Sureeyatanapas, Poophiukhok, and Pathumnakul (2018) highlighted that the logistics service providers support green transportation initiatives. Additionally, Colicchia et al. (2013) also depicted that electric or hybrid vehicle usage, alternative fuels, effective routing systems, more efficient shipment consolidation and full-truck-load operations were transport-based environmental efforts that could benefit the environment and reduce CO2 emissions.

There are numerous motivations to utilise green transportation. Ellram and Murfield (2017) elucidated that green transportation is cost-saving, lower regulation risk, decreases fuel or energy usage and reduces the environmental burden. Moreover, sustainable transport businesses possess improved service performance, positive reputations, improved opportunities and collaborations (Ellram & Murfield, 2017). Therefore, organisations that adopt green transportation can increase environmental, economic and operational performance (Centobelli, Cerchione, & Esposito, 2017).

Collaborative efforts are vital for green transportation initiatives implementation. Speranza (2018) depicted that additional collaborative efforts from the government, private sectors and consumers are imperative. For example, consumers could contribute through collaborative consumption, such as on-demand mobility and crowdsourcing (Speranza, 2018). Additionally, governmental efforts could drive green transportation initiatives through regulations, policies, subventions and tax instruments (Björklund, 2011). Nonetheless, Björklund (2011) emphasise that the government should participate cautiously as businesses may perceive it as impeding rather than facilitating sustainable environmental development. The Brunei National Climate Change Policy's Electric Vehicle Pilot Project indicated the government's role in attaining the “Wawasan Brunei 2035” vision. Thus, it indicates that the Brunei government drives other halal food businesses to adopt green transportation and SHFSC practices. The paper suggests this proposition:

Proposition 4.

Utilising green transportation centred on sustainable operation, with collaborative efforts and implementation among upstream and downstream supply chain players, would contribute to a sustainable future and improve economic and operational performance.

The four environmentally cautious approaches of responsible sourcing, environmental purchasing, sustainable packaging and green transportation are viable actions that could help instigate supply chain members to practice SSCM. However, the list is not limited to the four SSCM practices mentioned above. Other initiatives such as technology adoption, sustainable supplier selection and implementation of traceability systems are equally significant undertakings. Nevertheless, the authors emphasised the four SSCM and propositions deliberated above on the basis that businesses can establish the practices internally within an organisation with little influence, dependency or pressure from external parties such as the government, suppliers or competitors.

5. Conclusions, limitations and future research

Sustainability and halal business-themed literature are dispersed and have gained substantial attention from the industry and academia. As these domains expand, the halal and sustainability interlink is inevitable. This paper considered the potential SSCM practices toward Brunei halal food supply chain and aims to contribute to the “Wawasan Brunei 2035” vision. This piece is considered among the first and the few that highlight four potential SSCM practices and propositions that can be implemented from a Brunei standpoint: responsible sourcing, environmental purchasing, sustainable packaging and green transportation. By implementing the four proposed SSCM approaches, the upstream and downstream halal food supply chains coming into the country are not only shariah-compliant and tayyib but are sustainable in terms of business longevity and environmental-friendly.

There are two feasible courses of action for SSCM that may provide fruitful avenues to encourage SHFSC in Brunei. Firstly, a detailed SSCM literature review must be executed to comprehensively understand the sustainable initiative's urgency. This paper will significantly impact future business undertakings, particularly Brunei sustainability endeavours, highlighting other potential SSCM practices beyond the proposed initiatives.

Secondly, a natural progression of this viewpoint is to consider the relevant theoretical framework that could provide a more nuanced understanding and deduced deliberation. For instance, researchers in the future could consider established frameworks like the structure-conduct-performance, the triple bottom line approach or the transaction cost theory. These frameworks and many more in the literature may contribute to understanding the need for SSCM practices in the halal supply chains and its impact on the Brunei economy.

Thirdly, future studies should investigate the SSCM impacts on business performance. Previous literature depicted the correlation between sustainable efforts and improved environmental, social, economic and operational performances, which benefits Brunei supply chain entities such as halal food companies. Therefore, additional insight will reinforce the sustainability-performance association, encourage other SSCM practices and enrich the HFSCM literature.

There were several limitations in this study. This viewpoint is a preliminary qualitative study focusing on limited literature that may overlook several vital studies. Additionally, the views are confined to the four SSCM practices within Brunei context and that they cannot be generalised. Besides, other SSCM practices, for instance, technology adoption, sustainable supplier selection and implementation of traceability systems, are precluded from this treatise. Future research may consider the inclusion that would enrich and entice more SSCM practices among halal-certified food companies in Brunei. Nevertheless, this price is timely, setting a foundation for future comprehensive studies that can contribute to further sustainable initiative pursuit.

Figures

Brunei halal logo

Figure 1

Brunei halal logo

Sustainability-themed Quran verses

SurahVerseTranslation
Al-A'raf (The Heights)31O Children of Adam! Dress properly whenever you are at worship. Eat and drink, but do not waste. Surely, He does not like the wasteful
85So, give just measure and weight, do not defraud people of their property, nor spread corruption in the land after it has been set in order. This is for your own good if you are truly believers
Al-Isra (The Night Journey)26Give to close relatives their due, as well as the poor and needy travellers. And do not spend wastefully
Al-Furqan (The Criterion)67And [they are] those who, when they spend, do so not excessively or sparingly but are ever, between that, [justly] moderate

Source(s): The Holy Quran (www.quran.com)

References

Aboul-Enein, B. H. (2018). ‘The earth is your mosque’: Narrative perspectives of environmental health and education in the holy Quran. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, Springer New York LLC, 8(1), 2231. doi: 10.1007/s13412-017-0444-7.

Adobor, H., & McMullen, R. S. (2014). Strategic purchasing and supplier partnerships-The role of a third party organization. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Elsevier, 20(4), 263272. doi: 10.1016/j.pursup.2014.05.003.

Afif, K., Rebolledo, C., & Roy, J. (2022). Drivers, barriers and performance outcomes of sustainable packaging: A systematic literature review. British Food Journal, 124(3), 915935. doi: 10.1108/BFJ-02-2021-0150.

Ali, M. H., & Suleiman, N. (2016). Sustainable food production: Insights of Malaysian halal small and medium sized enterprises. International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier B.V., 181, 303314. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpe.2016.06.003.

Ambekar, S., Kapoor, R., Prakash, A., & Patyal, V. S. (2019). Motives, processes and practices of sustainable sourcing: A literature review. Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, Emerald Group Holdings, 14(February). doi: 10.1108/JGOSS-11-2017-0046.

Arora, A., Arora, A. S., Sivakumar, K., & Burke, G. (2020). Strategic sustainable purchasing, environmental collaboration, and organizational sustainability performance: The moderating role of supply base size. Supply Chain Management, Emerald Group Holding, 25(6), 709728. doi: 10.1108/SCM-07-2019-0284.

Baran, T. (2021). A literature review and classification of the studies on “halal” in Islamic business journals (2010-2018). Journal of Islamic Marketing, 12(5), 10121024.

Battour, M., & Ismail, M. N. (2016). Halal tourism: Concepts, practises, challenges and future. Tourism Management Perspectives, 19, 150154.

Billah, A., Rahman, M. A., & Hossain, M. T.bin (2020). Factors influencing Muslim and non-Muslim consumers’ consumption behavior: A case study on halal food. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, Routledge, 23(4), 324349. doi: 10.1080/15378020.2020.1768040.

Björklund, M. (2011). Influence from the business environment on environmental purchasing - drivers and hinders of purchasing green transportation services. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 17(1), 1122. doi: 10.1016/j.pursup.2010.04.002.

Brennan, L., Langley, S., Verghese, K., Lockrey, S., Ryder, M., Francis, C., …, & Hill, A. (2021). The role of packaging in fighting food waste: A systematised review of consumer perceptions of packaging. Journal of Cleaner Production, Elsevier, 281, 125276. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.125276.

Butt, M. M., & Aftab, M. (2013). Incorporating attitude toward Halal banking in an integrated service quality, satisfaction, trust and loyalty model in the online Islamic banking context. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 31(1), 623.

Butt, M. M., Rose, S., Wilkins, S., & Ul Haq, J. (2017). MNCs and religious influences in global markets. International Marketing Review, 34(6), 885908.

Carr, A. S., & Smeltzer, L. R. (1999). The relationship of strategic purchasing to supply chain management. European Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, 5(1), 4351. doi: 10.1016/S0969-7012(98)00022-7.

Carter, C. R., & Carter, J. R. (1998). Interorganizational determinants of environmental purchasing: Initial evidence from the consumer products industries. Decision Sciences, 29(3), 659684. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5915.1998.tb01358.x.

Carter, C. R., & Rogers, D. S. (2008). A framework of sustainable supply chain management: Moving toward new theory. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 38(5), 360387. doi:10.1108/09600030810882816.

Centobelli, P., Cerchione, R., & Esposito, E. (2017). Environmental sustainability in the service industry of transportation and logistics service providers: Systematic literature review and research directions. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Elsevier, 53, 454470. doi: 10.1016/j.trd.2017.04.032.

Chaichana, T. (2020). Renewable, sustainable and natural materials on food packaging: Primary data for robotically detect packaging shape in logistics. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing, 1681. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1681/1/012024.

Chen, J. -Y. (2022). Responsible sourcing and supply chain traceability. International Journal of Production Economics, 248, 108462. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpe.2022.108462.

Chen, S., Brahma, S., Mackay, J., Cao, C., & Aliakbarian, B. (2020). The role of smart packaging system in food supply chain. Journal of Food Science, Blackwell Publishing, 1(March). doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.15046.

Colicchia, C., Marchet, G., Melacini, M., & Perotti, S. (2013). Building environmental sustainability: Empirical evidence from logistics service providers. Journal of Cleaner Production, 59, 197209. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.06.057.

Costanza, R., & Patten, B. C. (1995). Defining and predicting sustainability. Ecological Economics, 15(3), 193196. doi: 10.1016/0921-8009(95)00048-8.

Department of Economic Planning and Statistic. (2021). Brunei Darussalam key indicators 2020. Bandar Seri Begawan: Ministry of Finance and Economy.

DinarStandard (2019), State of the global Islamic economy Report 2019/2020, state of the global Islamic economy Report 2019/2020.

DinarStandard (2020). State of the Global Islamic Economy Report 2020/21. In Dubai Islamic Economy Development Center. Available from https://www.salaamgateway.com/specialcoverage/SGIE20-21.

Elkington, J. (1998). Partnerships fromcannibals with forks: The triple bottom line of 21st-century business. Environmental Quality Management, 8(1), 3751. doi: 10.1002/tqem.3310080106.

Ellram, L. M., & Murfield, M. L. U. (2017). Environmental sustainability in freight transportation: A systematic literature review and agenda for future research. Transportation Journal, American Society of Transportation and Logistics, 1(June). doi: 10.5325/transportationj.56.3.0263.

Feng, Y., Lai, K.hung, & Zhu, Q. (2022). Green supply chain innovation: Emergence, adoption, and challenges. International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier B.V., 248. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpe.2022.108497.

Ferguson Aikins, E., & Ramanathan, U. (2020). Key factors of carbon footprint in the UK food supply chains: A new perspective of life cycle assessment. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Emerald Group Holdings, 40(7-8), 945970. doi: 10.1108/IJOPM-06-2019-0478.

Filho, W. L., Dahms, L. M., & Consorte-McCrea, A. (2018). Sustainability and religion: Past trends and future perspectives. Sustainability and the Humanities, Springer International Publishing, 611619. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-95336-6_35.

García-Arca, J., & Prado, J. C. P. (2008). Packaging design model from a supply chain approach. Supply Chain Management, 13(5), 375380. doi: 10.1108/13598540810894960.

García-Arca, J., González-Portela Garrido, A. T., & Prado-Prado, J. C. (2017). ‘Sustainable packaging logistics’. The link between sustainability and competitiveness in supply chains. Sustainability (Switzerland), MDPI, 9(7). doi: 10.3390/su9071098.

Gardas, B. B., Raut, R. D., & Narkhede, B. (2019). Identifying critical success factors to facilitate reusable plastic packaging towards sustainable supply chain management. Journal of Environmental Management, Academic Press, 236, 8192. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.01.113.

Gazzola, P., Colombo, G., Pezzetti, R., & Nicolescu, L. (2017). Consumer empowerment in the digital economy: Availing sustainable purchasing decisions. Sustainability (Switzerland), MDPI, 9(5). doi: 10.3390/su9050693.

Giunipero, L. C., Hooker, R. E., & Denslow, D. (2012). Purchasing and supply management sustainability: Drivers and barriers. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 18(4), 258269. doi: 10.1016/j.pursup.2012.06.003.

Glass, J., Achour, N., Parry, T., & Nicholson, I. (2012). Engaging small firms in sustainable supply chains: Responsible sourcing practices in the UK construction industry. International Journal of Agile Systems and Management, 5(1), 2958. doi: 10.1504/IJASM.2012.045900.

Glavič, P., & Lukman, R. (2007). Review of sustainability terms and their definitions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 15(18), 18751885. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2006.12.006.

Guo, R., Lee, H. L., & Swinney, R. (2016). Responsible sourcing in supply chains. Management Science, INFORMS Inst.for Operations Res.and the Management Sciences, 62, 27222744. doi: 10.1287/mnsc.2015.2256.

Hackett, C., & Lipka, M. (2018). The demographic factors that make Islam the world’s fastest-growing major religious group. Scripta Instituti Donneriani Aboensis, 28(1), 1114.

Haleem, A., Khan, M. I., & Khan, S. (2021). Conceptualising a framework linking halal supply chain management with sustainability: An India centric study. Journal of Islamic Marketing, Emerald Group Publishing, 12(8), 15351552. doi: 10.1108/JIMA-07-2019-0149.

Hamdan, M., & Hoon, C. -Y. (2019). Brunei Darussalam: Making strides with a renewed focus on the future. In D. Singh, & M. Cook (Eds.), Southeast Asian Affairs 2019 (Vol. 2019, pp. 85102). Singapore: ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute Singapore. doi: 10.1355/9789814843164-008.

Hayat, R., den Butter, F., & Kock, U. (2013). Halal certification for financial products: A transaction cost perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 117(3), 601613.

Hellström, D., & Saghir, M. (2007). Packaging and logistics interactions in retail supply chains. Packaging Technology and Science, 20(3), 197216. doi: 10.1002/pts.754.

Huang, C. H., Liu, S. M., & Hsu, N. Y. (2020). Understanding global food surplus and food waste to tackle economic and environmental sustainability. Sustainability, 12(7), 118.

Johnsen, T. E., Miemczyk, J., & Howard, M. (2017). A systematic literature review of sustainable purchasing and supply research: Theoretical perspectives and opportunities for IMP-based research. Industrial Marketing Management, Elsevier, 1(February). doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2016.03.003.

Kaza, S., Yao, L. C., Bhada-Tata, P., & van Woerden, F. (2018). What a waste 2.0: A global snapshot of solid waste management to 2050. Washington, DC: World Bank. doi: 10.1596/978-1-4648-1329-0.

Khalid, A. M., Haji Masr, M., Muhammad, N., & Pang, W. L. (2018). Brunei Darussalam: Halal Meat and Meat products processing. In J. Gross, & P. S. Intal (Eds.), Reducing Unnecessary Regulatory Burdens in ASEAN: Country Studies (pp. 89117). Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia.

Khan, M. I., Haleem, A., & Khan, S. (2022). Examining the link between Halal supply chain management and sustainability. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 71(7), 27932819. doi: 10.1108/IJPPM-07-2019-0354.

Kifli, H. S. N. B. H. (2019). Halal Certification in Brunei (Working Paper Series No. 50). Available from http://ias.ubd.edu.bn/ias-working-paper-on-halal-certification/.

Kon, J. (2018), “Youth encouraged to take up opportunities in agriculture halal industries”, Borneo Bulletin, November 20th, 2018.

Kotabe, M., & Murray, J. Y. (2004). Global sourcing strategy and sustainable competitive advantage. Industrial Marketing Management, 33(1), 714. doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2003.08.004.

Laosirihongthong, T., Adebanjo, D., & Choon Tan, K. (2013). Green supply chain management practices and performance. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 113(8), 10881109. doi: 10.1108/IMDS-04-2013-0164.

Leenders, M. R., Nollet, J., & Ellram, L. M. (1994). Adapting purchasing to supply chain management. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 24(1), 4042. doi: 10.1108/09600039410056007.

Malik, A. Q. (2011). Assessment of the potential of renewables for Brunei Darussalam. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, 15(1), 427437. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2010.08.014.

Meherishi, L., Narayana, S. A., & Ranjani, K. S. (2019). Sustainable packaging for supply chain management in the circular economy: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production, Elsevier, 237. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.07.057.

Miemczyk, J., Johnsen, T. E., & Macquet, M. (2012). Sustainable purchasing and supply management: A structured literature review of definitions and measures at the dyad, chain and network levelsedited by Wilding, R. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 17(5), 478496. doi: 10.1108/13598541211258564.

Miskam, S., Hamid, N. A., & Othman, N. (2018). Halal legal spectrum and certification bodies: Study in Brunei and Thailand. Advanced Science Letters, 24(7), 50745079. doi: 10.1166/asl.2018.11271.

Müller, D. M. (2016). Brunei in 2015: Oil revenues down, sharia on the rise. Asian Survey, 56(1), 162167. doi: 10.1525/as.2016.56.1.162.

Muhamad, A., Syihab, A. H., & Achour, M. (2019). Quranic Messages on environmental sustainability: An expository study of its relevance. Al-Bayan: Journal of Qur’an and Hadith Studies, Brill Academic Publishers, 17(1), 3859. doi: 10.1163/22321969-12340069.

Musa, S. F. P. D. (2019). Brunei Darussalam, a country profile. In R. Macdonald (Ed.), Southeast Asia and the ASEAN Economic Community (pp. 295311). Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-19722-3_8.

Pauer, E., Wohner, B., Heinrich, V., & Tacker, M. (2019). Assessing the environmental sustainability of food packaging: An extended life cycle assessment including packaging-related food losses and waste and circularity assessment. Sustainability, MDPI, 11(3), 925. doi: 10.3390/su11030925.

Pullman, M., & Wikoff, R. (2017). Institutional sustainable purchasing priorities: Stakeholder perceptions vs environmental reality. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 37(2), 162181.

Raza, S. A., Shah, N., & Sharif, A. (2019). Time frequency relationship between energy consumption, economic growth and environmental degradation in the United States: Evidence from transportation sector. Energy, Elsevier, 173, 706720. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2019.01.077.

Rejeb, A., Rejeb, K., & Zailani, S. (2021). Are halal food supply chains sustainable: A review and bibliometric analysis. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 24(5), 554595.

Rezai, G., Mohamed, Z., & Shamsudin, M. N. (2015). Can halal Be sustainable? Study on Malaysian consumers’ perspective. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 21(6), 654666. doi: 10.1080/10454446.2014.883583.

Ribal, J., Estruch, V., Clemente, G., Fenollosa, M. L., & Sanjuán, N. (2019). Assessing variability in carbon footprint throughout the food supply chain: A case study of Valencian oranges. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Springer Verlag, 24(8), 15151532. doi: 10.1007/s11367-018-01580-9.

Salas-Zapata, W. A., & Ortiz-Muñoz, S. M. (2019). Analysis of meanings of the concept of sustainability. Sustainable Development, John Wiley and Sons, 27(1), 153161. doi: 10.1002/sd.1885.

Schneider, L., & Wallenburg, C. M. (2012). Implementing sustainable sourcing-Does purchasing need to change?. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 18(4), 243257. doi: 10.1016/j.pursup.2012.03.002.

Secinaro, S., & Calandra, D. (2020). Halal food: Structured literature review and research agenda. British Food Journal, 123(1), 225243.

Shams, S., Juani, R. H. M., & Guo, Z. (2014). Integrated and sustainable solid waste management for Brunei Darussalam. In 5th Brunei International Conference on Engineering and Technology (BICET 2014) (pp. 16), Institution of Engineering and Technology. doi: 10.1049/cp.2014.1066.

Siracusa, V., & Rosa, M. D. (2018). Sustainable packaging. Sustainable Food Systems from Agriculture to Industry, Elsevier, 275307. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-811935-8.00008-1.

Speranza, M. G. (2018). Trends in transportation and logistics. European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier B.V., 264(3), 830836. doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2016.08.032.

Striebig, B., Smitts, E., & Morton, S. (2019). Impact of transportation on carbon dioxide emissions from locally vs. Non-locally sourced food. Emerging Science Journal, Ital Publication, 3(4), 222234. doi: 10.28991/esj-2019-01184.

Sulaiman, A., Othman, N., Baharuddin, A. S., Mokhtar, M. N., & Tabatabaei, M. (2014). Enhancing the halal food industry by utilising food wastes to produce value-added bioproducts. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 121, 3543.

Sureeyatanapas, P., Poophiukhok, P., & Pathumnakul, S. (2018). Green initiatives for logistics service providers: An investigation of antecedent factors and the contributions to corporate goals. Journal of Cleaner Production, Elsevier, 191, 114. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.04.206.

Talib, M. S. A. (2021). Identifying halal logistics constraints in Brunei Darussalam. Journal of Islamic Marketing, Emerald Group Publishing, 12(6), 11451158. doi: 10.1108/JIMA-09-2019-0189.

Talib, M. S. A., & Hamid, A. B. A. (2014). Halal logistics in Malaysia: a SWOT analysis. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 5(3), 322343.

Talib, M. S. A., & Wahab, S. N. (2021). Halal logistics in a rentier state: An observation. Modern Supply Chain Research and Applications, 3(2), 155170.

Talluri, S., & Narasimhan, R. (2004). A methodology for strategic sourcing. European Journal of Operational Research, 154(1), 236250. doi: 10.1016/S0377-2217(02)00649-5.

Thomson, J., & Jackson, T. (2007). Sustainable procurement in practice: Lessons from local government. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 50(3), 421444. doi: 10.1080/09640560701261695.

Tiwari, A. K., Khalfaoui, R., Saidi, S., & Shahbaz, M. (2020). Transportation and environmental degradation interplays in US: New insights based on wavelet analysis. Environmental and Sustainability Indicators, Elsevier B.V., 7, 100051. doi: 10.1016/j.indic.2020.100051.

Tomalin, E., Haustein, J., & Kidy, S. (2019). Religion and the sustainable development goals. Review of Faith and International Affairs, Routledge, 3(April). doi: 10.1080/15570274.2019.1608664.

Trent, R. J., & Monczka, R. M. (2003). International purchasing and global sourcing - what are the differences?. The Journal of Supply Chain Management, 39(4), 2636. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-493X.2003.tb00162.x.

Tseng, M. L., Islam, M. S., Karia, N., Fauzi, F. A., & Afrin, S. (2019). A literature review on green supply chain management: Trends and future challenges. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Elsevier B.V., 1(February). doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.10.009.

van den Brink, S., Kleijn, R., Tukker, A., & Huisman, J. (2019). Approaches to responsible sourcing in mineral supply chains. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Elsevier B.V., 145, 389398. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.02.040.

Vanany, I., Soon, J. M., Maryani, A., & Wibawa, B. M. (2020). Determinants of halal-food consumption in Indonesia. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 11(2), 516530.

Verghese, K., & Lewis, H. (2007). Environmental innovation in industrial packaging: A supply chain approach. International Journal of Production Research, 45(18-19), 43814401. doi: 10.1080/00207540701450211.

Vijayvargy, L., Thakkar, J., & Agarwal, G. (2017). Green supply chain management practices and performance: The role of firm-size for emerging economies. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Emerald Group Holdings, 28(3), 299323. doi: 10.1108/JMTM-09-2016-0123.

Vörösmarty, G., Dobos, I., & Tátrai, T. (2011). Motivations behind sustainable purchasing. In R. Burritt, S. Schaltegger, M. Bennett, T. Pohjola, & M. Csutora (Eds), Environmental management accounting and supply chain management. eco-efficiency in industry and science. Vol. 27. Dordrecht: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-1390-1_3.

Wilkins, S., Butt, M. M., Shams, F., & Pérez, A. (2019). The acceptance of halal food in non-Muslim countries: Effects of religious identity, national identification, consumer ethnocentrism and consumer cosmopolitanism. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 10(4), 13081331.

Wilson, J. A. J., & Liu, J. (2010). Shaping Halal into a brand? Journal of Islamic Marketing, 1(2), 107123.

Wu, Z., & Pagell, M. (2011). Balancing priorities: Decision-making in sustainable supply chain management. Journal of Operations Management, 29(6), 577590. doi: 10.1016/j.jom.2010.10.001.

Yang, Y., & Meng, G. (2020). The evolution and research framework of carbon footprint: Based on the perspective of knowledge mapping. Ecological Indicators, Elsevier B.V., 112, 106125. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106125.

Younis, H., Sundarakani, B., & Vel, P. (2016). The impact of implementing green supply chain management practices on corporate performance. Competitiveness Review, Emerald Group Publishing, 26(3), 216245. doi: 10.1108/CR-04-2015-0024.

Zailani, S., Jeyaraman, K., Vengadasan, G., & Premkumar, R. (2012). Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) in Malaysia: A survey. International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, 140(1), 330340. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpe.2012.02.008.

Zorzini, M., Hendry, L. C., Huq, F. A., & Stevenson, M. (2015). Socially responsible sourcing: Reviewing the literature and its use of theory. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Emerald Group Publishing, 5(January). doi: 10.1108/IJOPM-07-2013-0355.

Acknowledgements

Funding: This work was supported by the UBD FIC Research Grant [UBD/RSCH/1.8/FICBF(b)/2021/015].

Corresponding author

Mohamed Syazwan Ab Talib can be contacted at: syazwan.talib@ubd.edu.bn

Related articles