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Flow separation control of NACA-2412 airfoil with bio-inspired nose

Mohamed Arif Raj Mohamed (Department of Aerospace Engineering, Sri Ramaswamy Memorial Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, India)
Ugur Guven (University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, India)
Rajesh Yadav (University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, India)

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology

ISSN: 0002-2667

Article publication date: 20 June 2019

Issue publication date: 15 August 2019




The purpose of this paper is to achieve an optimum flow separation control over the airfoil using passive flow control method by introducing bio-inspired nose near the leading edge of the NACA 2412 airfoil.


Two distinguished methods have been implemented on the leading edge of the airfoil: forward facing step, which induces multiple accelerations at low angle of attack, and cavity/backward facing step, which creates recirculating region (axial vortices) at high angle of attack.


The porpoise airfoil (optimum bio-inspired nose airfoil) delays the flow separation and improves the aerodynamic efficiency by increasing the lift and decreasing the parasitic drag. The maximum increase in aerodynamic efficiency is 22.4 per cent, with an average increase of 8.6 per cent at all angles of attack.

Research limitations/implications

The computational analysis has been done for NACA 2412 airfoil at low subsonic speed.

Practical implications

This design improves the aerodynamic performance and increases structural strength of the aircraft wing compared to other conventional high-lift devices and flow-control devices.


Different bio-inspired nose designs which are inspired by the cetacean species have been analysed for NACA 2412 airfoil, and optimum nose design (porpoise airfoil) has been found.



Raj Mohamed, M.A., Guven, U. and Yadav, R. (2019), "Flow separation control of NACA-2412 airfoil with bio-inspired nose", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 91 No. 7, pp. 1058-1066.



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