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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2018

Wienczyslaw Stalewski and Andrzej Krzysiak

The purpose of this study is to develop the concept of self-adapting system which would be able to control a flow on the wing-high-lift system and protect the flow against…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop the concept of self-adapting system which would be able to control a flow on the wing-high-lift system and protect the flow against strong separation.

Design/methodology/approach

The self-adapting system has been developed based on computational approach. The computational studies have been conducted using the URANS solver. The experimental investigations have been conducted to verify the computational results.

Findings

The developed solution is controlled by closed-loop-control (CLC) system. As flow actuators, the main-wing trailing-edge nozzles are proposed. Based on signals received from the pressure sensors located at the flap trailing edge, the CLC algorithm changes the amount of air blown from the nozzles. The results of computational simulations confirmed good effectiveness and reliability of the developed system. These results have been partially confirmed by experimental investigations.

Research limitations/implications

The presented research on an improvement of the effectiveness of high-lift systems of modern aircraft was conducted on the relatively lower level of the technology readiness. However, despite this limitation, the results of presented studies can provide a basis for developing innovative self-adaptive aerodynamic systems that potentially may be implemented in future aircrafts.

Practical implications

The studies on autonomous flow-separation control systems, operating in a closed feedback loop, are a great hope for significant advances in modern aeronautical engineering, also in the UAV area. The results of the presented studies can provide a basis for developing innovative self-adaptive aerodynamic systems at a higher level of technological readiness.

Originality/value

The presented approach is especially original and valuable in relation to the innovative concept of high-lift system supported by air-jets blown form the main-wing-trailing-edge nozzles; the effective and reliable flow sensors are the pressure sensors located at the flap trailing edge, and the effective and robust algorithm controlling the self-adapting aerodynamic system – original especially in respect to a strategy of deactivation of flow actuators.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2019

Petr Vrchota, Ales Prachar, Shia-Hui Peng, Magnus Tormalm and Peter Eliasson

In the European project AFLoNext, active flow control (AFC) measures were adopted in the wing tip extension leading edge to suppress flow separation. It is expected that…

Abstract

Purpose

In the European project AFLoNext, active flow control (AFC) measures were adopted in the wing tip extension leading edge to suppress flow separation. It is expected that the designed wing tip extension may improve aerodynamic efficiency by about 2 per cent in terms of fuel consumption and emissions. As the leading edge of the wing tip is not protected with high-lift device, flow separation occurs earlier than over the inboard wing in the take-off/landing configuration. The aim of this study is the adoption of AFC to delay wing tip stall and to improve lift-to-drag ratio.

Design/methodology/approach

Several actuator locations and AFC strategies were tested with computational fluid dynamics. The first approach was “standard” one with physical modeling of the actuators, and the second one was focused on the volume forcing method. The actuators location and the forcing plane close to separation line of the reference configuration were chose to enhance the flow with steady and pulsed jet blowing. Dependence of the lift-to-drag benefit with respect to injected mass flow is investigated.

Findings

The mechanism of flow separation onset is identified as the interaction of slat-end and wing tip vortices. These vortices moving toward each other with increasing angle of attack (AoA) interact and cause the flow separation. AFC is applied to control the slat-end vortex and the inboard movement of the wing tip vortex to suppress their interaction. The separation onset has been postponed by about 2° of AoA; the value of ift-to-drag (L/D) was improved up to 22 per cent for the most beneficial cases.

Practical implications

The AFC using the steady or pulsed blowing (PB) was proved to be an effective tool for delaying the flow separation. Although better values of L/D have been reached using steady blowing, it is also shown that PB case with a duty cycle of 0.5 needs only one half of the mass flow.

Originality/value

Two approaches of different levels of complexity are studied and compared. The first is based on physical modeling of actuator cavities, while the second relies on volume forcing method which does not require detailed actuator modeling. Both approaches give consistent results.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Heribert Bieler

Aerodynamics drives the aircraft performance and, thus, influences fuel consumption and environmental compatibility. Further, optimization of aerodynamic shapes is an…

Abstract

Purpose

Aerodynamics drives the aircraft performance and, thus, influences fuel consumption and environmental compatibility. Further, optimization of aerodynamic shapes is an ongoing design activity in industrial offices; this will lead to incremental improvements. More significant step changes in performance are not expected from pure passive shape design. However, active flow control is a key technology, which has the potential to realize a drastic step change in performance. Flow control targets two major goals: low speed performance enhancements mainly for start and landing phase via control of separation and drag reduction at high speed conditions via skin friction and shock wave control.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper highlights flow control concepts and Airbus involvements for both items. To mature flow control systematically, local applications of separation control technology are of major importance for Airbus. In parallel, but at lower maturity level, investigations are ongoing to reduce the turbulent skin friction at cruise. A popular concept to delay separation at low speed conditions is the implementation of jet actuation control systems flush mounted to the wall of aerodynamic components.

Findings

In 2006, DLR (in collaboration with universities Berlin, Braunschweig and industrial partner Airbus) started to study active flow control for separation delay towards application. Based on basic proof of concepts (achieved in national projects), further flow control hardware developments and wind tunnel and lab testing took place in European funded projects.

Originality/value

Significant lift enhancements were realized via flow control applied to the wing leading edge and the flap.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 89 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Mohamed Arif Raj Mohamed, Rajesh Yadav and Ugur Guven

This paper aims to achieve an optimum flow separation control over the airfoil using a passive flow control method by introducing a bio-inspired nose near the leading edge…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to achieve an optimum flow separation control over the airfoil using a passive flow control method by introducing a bio-inspired nose near the leading edge of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 4 and 6 series airfoil. In addition, to find the optimised leading edge nose design for NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils for flow separation control.

Design/methodology/approach

Different bio-inspired noses that are inspired by the cetacean species have been analysed for different NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils. Bio-inspired nose with different nose length, nose depth and nose circle diameter have been analysed on airfoils with different thicknesses, camber and camber locations to understand the aerodynamic flow properties such as vortex formation, flow separation, aerodynamic efficiency and moment.

Findings

The porpoise nose design that has a leading edge with depth = 2.25% of chord, length = 0.75% of chord and nose diameter = 2% of chord, delays the flow separation and improves the aerodynamic efficiency. Average increments of 5.5% to 6° in the lift values and decrements in parasitic drag (without affecting the pitching moment) for all the NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils were observed irrespective of airfoil geometry such as different thicknesses, camber and camber location.

Research limitations/implications

The two-dimensional computational analysis is done for different NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils at low subsonic speed.

Practical implications

This design improves aerodynamic performance and increases the structural strength of the aircraft wing compared to other conventional high lift devices and flow control devices. This universal leading edge flow control device can be adapted to aircraft wings incorporated with any NACA 4 and 6 series airfoil.

Social implications

The results would be of significant interest in the fields of aircraft design and wind turbine design, lowering the cost of energy and air travel for social benefits.

Originality/value

Different bio-inspired nose designs that are inspired by the cetacean species have been analysed for NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils and universal optimum nose design (porpoise airfoil) is found for NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils.

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Wei Wang, Spiridon Siouris and Ning Qin

The purpose of this article is to present numerical investigations of flow control with piezoelectric actuators on a backward facing step (BFS) and fluidic vortex…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to present numerical investigations of flow control with piezoelectric actuators on a backward facing step (BFS) and fluidic vortex generators on a NACA0015 aerofoil for the reattachment and separation control through the manipulation of the Reynolds stresses.

Design/methodology/approach

The unsteady flow phenomena associated with both devices are simulated using Spalart–Allmaras-based hybrid Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)/large eddy simulation (LES) models (detached eddy simulation (DES), delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES) and improved delayed detached eddy simulation (IDDES)), using an in-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. Results from these computations are compared with experimental observations, enabling their reliable assessment through the detailed investigation of the Reynolds stresses and also the separation and reattachment.

Findings

All the hybrid RANS/LES methods investigated in this article predict reasonable results for the BFS case, while only IDDES captures the separation point as measured in the experiments. The oscillating surface flow control method by piezoelectric actuators applied to the BFS case demonstrates that the Reynolds stresses in the controlled case decrease, and that a slightly nearer reattachment is achieved for the given actuation. The fluidic vortex generators on the surface of the NACA0015 case force the separated flow to fully reattach on the wing. Although skin friction is increased, there is a significant decrease in Reynolds stresses and an increase in lift to drag ratio.

Originality/value

The value of this article lies in the assessment of the hybrid RANS/LES models in terms of separation and reattachment for the cases of the backward-facing step and NACA0015 wing, and their further application in active flow control.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 86 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

David S. Martínez, Elisa Pescini, Maria Grazia De Giorgi and Antonio Ficarella

Reynolds number in small-size low-pressure turbines (LPT) can drop below 2.5 · 104 at high altitude cruise, which in turn can lead to laminar boundary layer separation on…

Abstract

Purpose

Reynolds number in small-size low-pressure turbines (LPT) can drop below 2.5 · 104 at high altitude cruise, which in turn can lead to laminar boundary layer separation on the suction surface of the blades. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential of an alternate current (AC)-driven Single Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuator (AC-SDBDPA) for boundary layer control on the suction side of a LPT blade, operating at a Reynolds number of 2 · 104.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental and numerical analyses were conducted. The experimental approach comprised the actuator testing over a curved plate with a shape designed to reproduce the suction surface of a LPT blade. A closed loop wind tunnel was employed. Sinusoidal voltage excitation was tested. Planar velocity measurements were performed by laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The device electrical power dissipation was also calculated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using OpenFOAM© were conducted, modelling the actuator effect as a body force calculated by the dual potential algebraic model. Unsteady RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations), also known as URANS approach, with the k-ε Lam-Bremhorst Low-Reynolds turbulence model was used.

Findings

The AC-SDBDPA operation brought to a reduction of the separation region; in particular, the boundary layer thickness and the negative velocity values decreased substantially. Moreover, the flow angle in both the main flow and in the boundary layer was reduced by the plasma control effect. The actuation brought to a reduction of the 17 per cent in the total pressure loss coefficient. The pressure coefficient and skin friction coefficient distributions indicated that under actuation the reattacnment point was displaced upstream, meaning that the flow separation was effectively controlled by the plasma actuation. Adopting slightly higher actuation parameters could bring to a full reattachment of the flow.

Practical implications

The work underlines the potentialities of an AC-SDBDPA to control separation in LPTs of aeroengines.

Originality/value

The present work sets a methodological framework, in which the validated procedure to obtain the body force model combined with CFD simulations can be used to study a configuration with multiple actuators allocated in array without requiring further experiments.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 89 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2019

Mohamed Arif Raj Mohamed, Ugur Guven and Rajesh Yadav

The purpose of this paper is to achieve an optimum flow separation control over the airfoil using passive flow control method by introducing bio-inspired nose near the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to achieve an optimum flow separation control over the airfoil using passive flow control method by introducing bio-inspired nose near the leading edge of the NACA 2412 airfoil.

Design/methodology/approach

Two distinguished methods have been implemented on the leading edge of the airfoil: forward facing step, which induces multiple accelerations at low angle of attack, and cavity/backward facing step, which creates recirculating region (axial vortices) at high angle of attack.

Findings

The porpoise airfoil (optimum bio-inspired nose airfoil) delays the flow separation and improves the aerodynamic efficiency by increasing the lift and decreasing the parasitic drag. The maximum increase in aerodynamic efficiency is 22.4 per cent, with an average increase of 8.6 per cent at all angles of attack.

Research limitations/implications

The computational analysis has been done for NACA 2412 airfoil at low subsonic speed.

Practical implications

This design improves the aerodynamic performance and increases structural strength of the aircraft wing compared to other conventional high-lift devices and flow-control devices.

Originality/value

Different bio-inspired nose designs which are inspired by the cetacean species have been analysed for NACA 2412 airfoil, and optimum nose design (porpoise airfoil) has been found.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2012

Nizam Dahalan, Shuhaimi Mansor, Muhammad Haniff Shaharudin and Airi Ali

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the synthetic jet actuator design's performance based on piezoelectric diaphragms that can be appropriately used for flow

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the synthetic jet actuator design's performance based on piezoelectric diaphragms that can be appropriately used for flow separation control.

Design/methodology/approach

Design the synthetic jet actuators by means of estimating the several parameters and non‐dimensional parameters. Understanding the relationship and coupling effects of these parameters on the actuator to produce exit air jet required. Experiments were conducted to measure the exit air jet velocity using a hot‐wire anemometry and determine the good operational frequencies and voltages of the actuators for different cavity volume.

Findings

The performance of synthetic jet actuator is not consistent to a particular given frequency and it depends on design configurations. Each actuator will give a very good speed for a certain frequency. The results show that the exit air jet velocity increases would be better if the cavity volume is reduced and if the input voltage is increased to certain limits.

Research limitations/implications

The limit of input voltage for the actuators that can be achieved for good jet speed is 2V of about 205V output voltage for each frequency. The jet speed obtained is sufficient enough to control the separation for an aircraft which has a small wing chord and low speed. Therefore, more studies are needed to optimize the sizes of an orifice and cavity, and the selection of piezoelectric diaphragm.

Practical implications

The study helps in establishing a flow control device for controlling flow separation, especially on airfoils.

Originality/value

Design the synthetic jet actuators based on piezoelectric diaphragm for applications of flow separation control.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 84 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Abbas Ebrahimi, Majid Hajipour and Kamran Ghamkhar

The purpose of this paper is to control flow separation over a NACA 4415 airfoil by applying unsteady forces to the separated shear layers using dielectric barrier…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to control flow separation over a NACA 4415 airfoil by applying unsteady forces to the separated shear layers using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators. This novel flow control method is studied under conditions which the airfoil angle of attack is 18°, and Reynolds number based on chord length is 5.5 × 105.

Design/methodology/approach

Large eddy simulation of the turbulent flow is used to capture vortical structures through the airfoil wake. Power spectral density analysis of the baseline flow indicates dominant natural frequencies associated with “shear layer mode” and “wake mode.” The wake mode frequency is used simultaneously to excite separated shear layers at both the upper surface and the trailing edge of the airfoil (dual-position excitation), and it is also used singly to excite the upper surface shear layer (single-position excitation).

Findings

Based on the results, actuations manipulate the shear layers instabilities and change the wake patterns considerably. It is revealed that in the single-position excitation case, the vortices shed from the upper surface shear layer are more coherent than the dual-position excitation case. The maximum value of lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio is achieved, respectively, by single-position excitation as well as dual-position excitation.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the understanding and progress of DBD plasma actuators for flow control applications. Further, this research could be a beneficial solution for the promising design of advanced low speed flying vehicles.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Philipp Schloesser, Michael Meyer, Martin Schueller, Perez Weigel and Matthias Bauer

The area behind the engine/wing junction of conventional civil aircraft configurations with underwing-mounted turbofans is susceptible to local flow separation at high…

Abstract

Purpose

The area behind the engine/wing junction of conventional civil aircraft configurations with underwing-mounted turbofans is susceptible to local flow separation at high angles of attack, which potentially impacts maximum lift performance of the aircraft. This paper aims to present the design, testing and optimization of two distinct systems of fluidic actuation dedicated to reduce separation at the engine/wing junction.

Design/methodology/approach

Active flow control applied at the unprotected leading edge inboard of the engine pylon has shown considerable potential to alleviate or even eliminate local flow separation, and consequently regain maximum lift performance. Two actuator systems, pulsed jet actuators with and without net mass flux, are tested and optimized with respect to an upcoming large-scale wind tunnel test to assess the effect of active flow control on the flow behavior. The requirements and parameters of the flow control hardware are set by numerical simulations of project partners.

Findings

The results of ground test show that full modulation of the jets of the non-zero mass flux actuator is achieved. In addition, it could be shown that the required parameters can be satisfied at design mass flow, and that pressure levels are within bounds. Furthermore, a new generation of zero-net mass flux actuators with improved performance is presented and described. This flow control system includes the actuator devices, their integration, as well as the drive and control electronics system that is used to drive groups of actuators.

Originality/value

The originality is given by the application of the two flow control systems in a scheduled large-scale wind tunnel test.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 89 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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