One Health

ISBN: 978-1-80382-784-1, eISBN: 978-1-80382-783-4

Publication date: 14 March 2023


(2023), "Prelims", Formica, P. (Ed.) One Health, Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. i-xx.



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Copyright © 2023 Piero Formica. Published under exclusive licence by Emerald Publishing Limited

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One Health

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One Health: Transformative Enterprises, Wellbeing and Education in the Knowledge Economy

Edited by

Piero Formica

Maynooth University, Ireland

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK

First edition 2023

Editorial matter and selection © 2023 Piero Formica.

Individual chapters © 2023 The authors.

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To improve is to change; to be perfect is to change often.

Winston Churchill

To the path creators who transform our lives for the better.

About the Contributors

Nuno Almeida is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Georesources of the University of Lisbon (IST) and a member of the research unit Civil Engineering Research and Innovation for Sustainability (CERIS). His entrepreneurial, professional, research and academic activities are focused on protecting and deriving value from engineering assets through the assimilation of innovative management and technological solutions for critical infrastructure, buildings and advanced industrial facilities of both the public and private sectors, towards more resilient cities and societies. Nuno has published more than 100 refereed journal and conference papers on these topics. He has advised transdisciplinary research and consultancy projects in the construction, real estate, water, energy, rail and road sectors. He is the head of the Portuguese delegation in the ISO/TC251 Asset Management standardisation committee and is a member of the International Society of Engineering Asset Management.

Alan Barrell has worked in Health Care as a frontline Medical Scientist, in Medical Research, and more recently as Chairman and Chief Executive of large multi-national companies and smaller technology start-ups. His international experience includes the establishment and Chairmanship of a subsidiary in China of a British technology company. He teaches in universities in the UK, Europe, North America and Asia with professorships in European and Chinese universities. He has raised and managed a Venture Capital Fund, is a Business Angel Investor and Trustee of charities. He has been honoured with The Queen's Award for Enterprise Promotion in the UK and with membership as Knight First Class of the Order of the White Rose of Finland for services to Education. He is a member of the Advisory Board of China Insight Foundation and of MedCity London and a director of CFCC – China Future Creative Class – a company based in Shenyang and Cambridge. Alan promotes the vision of ‘A World Without Borders’. His career experience has prepared him well to be Executive Chairman at Cambridge Learning Gateway.

Leif Edvinsson made a career at the Swedish insurance company Skandia. In the 1990s he developed his theories about the hidden value of intellectual capital of Skandia and developed a management model for this value. In 1997 he published the book Intellectual Capital: Realizing Your Company's True Value by Finding Its Hidden Brainpower, with Michael Malone.

In 2001, he was appointed a professor at the University of Lund in Sweden. He also works as consultant for the Swedish government on knowledge and innovation. In 1998, Edvinsson was the recipient of the prestigious Brain of the Year award. Bill Gates and Paul McCartney were also nominated that year.

Piero Formica began his career as an Economist at the OECD's Economic Prospects Division in Paris. Founder of the International Entrepreneurship Academy Network, he was a Professor of Economics with a particular focus on innovation and entrepreneurship at the Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Sweden. Winner of the Innovation Luminary Award 2017 and the IVI Award for Achievements and Inspirations 2022, Formica is a Thought Leader and Senior Research Fellow with the Innovation Value Institute (IVI) of Maynooth University in Ireland. He is a Professor at the Contamination Lab of the University of Padua, an Advisor of the Cambridge Learning Gateway and a member of the New Club of Paris. Professor Formica has extensively published in the fields of knowledge economics, entrepreneurship and innovation. ECONAISSANCE: The Reimagined School and the Culture of Entrepreneurialism (Emerald Group Publishing, 2020), NATURE'S VOICE: Health and Humanities (bioGraph, 2020) and IDEATORS: Their Words and Voices (Emerald Group Publishing, 2022) are his most recent essays.

Fabio Maria Montagnino is the Head of Innovation and Entrepreneurship at The Cyprus Institute. He is a polymath with an academic background in the physics of biological systems and computational science, and scientific activity in the field of solar energy and sustainable built environment. Since about 30 years he's been promoting open and impactful innovation through the generation of science-based start-ups, technology scouting and knowledge transfer actions in Europe and the Mediterranean regions, where he has been leading a large number of transnational projects and actions.

Gareth Presch is a global healthcare thought leader and the Founder and CEO of the World Health Innovation Summit and World Health Service. He is the Expert Lead on SDG3/4 for the UNGSII Foundation 25+5 SDG Cities Leadership Platform, Founder of the Global Social Prescribing Alliance, Visiting Lecturer Fujitsu – Global Knowledge Institute, Advisor for the Global Mission Social Benefit Programs – Global Fund for Sustainable Development (GFSD), and a Member of Pope Francis's Vatican COVID-19 Commission Group 2 Looking to the Future.

Peter Robbins is one of Ireland's foremost experts in innovation and new product and service development. He was global head of innovation excellence for GlaxoSmithKline. Peter's PhD is in Innovation. His area of research is how firms organise for innovation. He is a former head of the Department of Design Innovation in Maynooth University. He is a member of the Government's National Design Forum and has developed and run courses and workshops in innovation for organisations in the public and private sector. He is on a number of innovation advisory boards in business and the third sector. Peter has trained in the renowned Stanford D School, and is a graduate of London's What-if creativity programme. He has published in R&D Management, the Irish Journal of Management, International Journal of Innovation Management; London Strategy Review and regularly speaks at international conferences on the subject of managing creativity and innovation.

Oliver Schwabe is an applied researcher on Innovation Diffusion in Ecosystems. He is the Chair of the Open European Network for Enterprise Innovation, and associated with the Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Georesources of the University of Lisbon (IST). He is the Fellow for Knowledge Products and Services at the Global Innovation Thinktank Entovation International and continuously supports a portfolio of high potential start-ups in their maturation process. Oliver has published over two dozen refereed journal and conference articles and developed and delivered multiple online and hybrid courses for US- and UK-based universities across a spectrum of themes such as Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Knowledge, Innovation and Change Management. Oliver holds a PhD from Cranfield University (UK) with a focus on the use of geometry for forecasting long-term uncertainty in small/scarce data environments. Deeply believing that the Arts are an integral part of the Innovation Journey, Oliver furthermore continuously refines and orchestrates a play-in-a-day Shakespearean event on the ‘Innovation Journey’ that is performed irregularly at selected locations across the world.


The Transformative Enterprise as a Living Organism

Leif Edvinsson

The original concept of Enterprise is said to be the gathering of risk-takers or entrepreneurs to undertake a mission. Once upon a time, it might have been the enterprise project to import from Asia to Europe. Implicitly it highlights both the risks and opportunities. The deeper meaning of the word ‘enterprise’ is to take the opportunity space in-between; in French, ‘entre prendre’ means to take the space in-between.

As a verb, Enterprising also has much connectivity to corporate navigation dynamics. As a concept, I was innovating, cultivating and applying it as a dynamic concept in the Skandia Future Center – a lab for futurising. I have described some of this in my book on Corporate Longitude, 2002. Skandia Future Center was designed as an Organisational Lab to address how to nourish the Organisation as a living cell with continuous renewal and innovation. This is also what Shell applied and described in the book The Living Enterprise by Arie de Guys. It amplifies the need for continuous renewal. Therefore, we developed the Leadership and Future Literacy tool of the Skandia Navigator. It was aimed at an analogy with ‘leading the ship’. In the Skandia Navigator, the bottom line is renewal and innovation. Not the traditional one-dimensional financial profit perspective. The Skandia Navigator is a five-dimensional Gyro or GPS for dynamic leadership and the development of intellectual capital. It turned out to be applicable both in Enterprising and Health Care.

Today, we might also address the health dimensions in enterprise navigation, especially related to the human capital dimensions. Are those values hidden, implicit, emerging or eroding as intangible assets? The living organism has many insights to offer for our Futurising. The emerging metrics and related navigational actions from the Navigator will show up in financial accounting metrics. Such data might only perceive the living organism as an object, such as an asset or liability. Enterprising is a dynamic organisational space. If not addressing correctly the opportunity space, there emerge as a liability space for the next generation. Might be this the roots of the growing fear by, among others, the eco-environment activists?

The in-between space might also be seen as soft culture, a soil of intangibility. In this space, the leadership is navigating the sustainable value-creating dimensions. For this, you need graphical geo maps or data mining maps, and you must quickly learn how to read those new IA (Intangible Assets) maps. If you miss this knowledge navigation, you will be stranded, and the organism will not survive. A new SDG (Sustainability Development Goal) Leadership Literacy is emerging.

Cultivate your immune defence proactively, like a gardener or health practitioner. Find your IC (Intellectual Capital) DNA and take an entrepreneurial charge to upgrade it continuously. The old theory of the firm with Italian roots is cracking or even might be obsolete. Now it is perhaps the networked enterprise, for example, in the shape of a DAO (Distributed Autonomous Organism). Social media is building on the Relational Capital but across distance, culture and age discrimination. The recent rapid evolution of Spotify might be an example of the dynamic Relational Capital. Millions of people gather to exchange music and knowledge on a volunteer basis rapidly.

The Transformative Enterprise will go through several iterations. Those might be described as life cycle curves. Late Prof Jay Forrester at MIT described both production processes, enterprising as well as nations in such terms. His epos is, among others, described in the book World Dynamics. The above-mentioned approaches might be combined into maps such as NIC (National Intellectual Capital and Intangible Assets). The German Ministry of Economics pioneered such navigation with its Wissensbilanz in early 2000. It was inspired by our work in Skandia with Intellectual Capital reporting in the early 1990s. The Cabinet in London recently launched a review of Hidden Values in the UK. See references by pioneering work of Ron Young Knowledge Associates, Cambridge. In December 2021, the Government of the United Kingdom published The Rose Book: Guidance on Knowledge Asset Management in Government. The UK government also published in April 2021 a report called ‘Getting smarter; a strategy for knowledge and innovation assets in the public sector known as “The Macintosh Report”’. Globally this is amplified by the WICI (World Intellectual Capital Initiative), which was grown out of pioneering work of MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry) ( Several knowledge pioneers are also grouped on the subject, among others, The New Club of Paris. Gradually the stakeholders start to see the intangible values beyond classical accounting. The stock exchange has already addressed the appreciation of these intangibles. The global trade flow goes from Trade of Goods to Trade on Service and now onto Trade on Intangibles.

Our next exploration of human curiosity goes out into Space. But also into the Brain. We have Cape Kennedy to launch rockets for Mars. However, where do we find similar platforms for our Brain ventures? Our old institutions are at risk. We already see this in cracking banks, Schools and Society infrastructure. Perhaps a kind of Organisational Complacency? Is our civilised Western society beyond its peak? New forms will emerge for knowledge sharing beyond libraries. It might be labelled Social Media. It is another gathering and community progressing. It will amplify the skill for not only literacy but also oracy, most likely in hybrid progress with neuroscience and quantum prototyping. As a recent target for Elon Musk's innovation initiatives, Twitter might be along with such evolution. It also bridges with the architectural dimensions. How do we design the City, the Enterprise and Society? Can a City be listed on the Stock Market like in China? How can a Soccer Team adopt a City? For Cultural Sustainability like the SDG targets, Professor Alan Dilani, who has conceived the Salutogenic Enterprising, has specialised in Salutogenic Architecture with the prototyping Academy for Health and Architecture. How will the architecture impact your health and shape enjoyment of life? A special dimension of this is the efforts to highlight the maps of Positive Cartography. It emerged in research in Utrecht in Holland with the LEF Future Center. Now it is a global community in progress with the prototyping. (

Our Futurising has to be less of traditional forecasting and more of Fore-Search. As such, it must be based on Anticipative Intelligence. With its work with Future Literacy Labs, UNESCO is pioneering this strategy by Riel Miller. This is a knowledge navigation quest onto organising for Wisdom Flows. That is now also being prototyped by Oracy Labs, spaces online or in real life. The purpose is to reach a more profound understanding dialogue with youngsters as Voices of the Future. A recent effort is also in applying such thought processing pedagogics to Peace Building. We also prototyped a cross-generational and cross-cultural approach in Skandia Future Center. We called it 3G to amplify that the future of work is across three generations.

The Transformative Enterprise can then be involved in Future Literacy and Knowledge Navigation. One such initiative comes from Gareth Presch, who launched WHIS – the World Health Innovative Summit; it might be on the prototyping of neuroscience to the models of SDG for Future Democracy. The prototyping of Society 5.0 is also already in progress in Japan by knowledge pioneers such as Professor Noboru Konno. Might the outcome be the living systems for harmonised cross-collaboration across borders and generations? The metaphor of a living cell might be applied. Showing a stem cell in the progress of being.... The cells is just five days after fertilization but is not yet not differentiated and poised as stem cells to become anything! The well-being of stem cells in the Quantum Age? Is this similar to Metaverse progressing? Is this an inspirational view of the future's sustainable, transformative, healthy enterprising?

“Stem Cell Mandala”, 2008, Mara G. Haseltine

Happy Futurising.

References de Geus, de Geus, A. The living enterprise. Dilani, Dilani, A. Edvinsson, Edvinsson, L. Corporate longitude. Edvinsson, 2013 Edvinsson, L. (2013). IC a 20 years perspective. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 14(1), 163172. Forrester, Forrester, J. Konno, 2021 Konno, N. (2021). Intellectual capital in Society 5.0 by the lens of the knowledge creation theory. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 22(3), 478505. doi:10.1108/JIC-02-2020-0060 Landes, 2012 Landes, D. S. , Mokyr, J. , & Baumol, W. J. (2012). The invention of enterprise: Entrepreneurship from ancient Mesopotamia to modern times. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Kune et al., Kune, H. , Köning, A. , Dvir, R. , & Maturana, C. Mercier-Laurent and Leif, Mercier-Laurent, E. , & Leif, E. Miller, Miller, R. Presch et al., Presch, G. et al. . The world health innovation summit as platform. Yeh-Yun, Yeh-Yun, L. National intellectual capital. Young, Young, R. Zohar and Dana, Zohar, D. paris publishing

Onward and Upward

On the Journey Heading Towards a Grand Transformation

Piero Formica

When you leave for Ithaca, may your journey be long and full of adventures and knowledge.


May there be many a summer morning, and may ports for the first time seen bring you great joy.


Ithaca has already given you a fine voyage; without Ithaca you would never have parted. ………………………………………………………………

…you have grown wise and lived an intense life, and that’s the meaning of Ithaca.

(Konstantinos P. Kavafis, Ithaca)

Transformation is a long, eventful journey, demanding persistence over time, discontinuity in behaviour and frequent changes. It is a journey to Ithaca, as recounted by the Greek poet Constantine Cavafy (1863–1933). Greek mythology tests the barrier between men, the gods and nature by resorting to transformation, which often involves profound and definitive change. Successive waves of shock during the 2000s uprooted businesses and jobs. In order to be reborn, both have to transform themselves in the footsteps of Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha, who, after the flood caused by Zeus, revived humankind by throwing stones behind them as they walked. The stones of Deucalion grew into men, and those of Pyrrha became women. Humanity was thus born anew.

With its thought leaders whose exploratory mindset enables them to turn an occasion or incident into a transformative experience, the Innovation Value Institute, a multidisciplinary research institute based at the University of Maynooth, is committed to digital transformation intertwined with two other transformations: ecological and behavioural. This triad constitutes a Grand Transformation conducive to entrepreneurial transformation and, hence, the emergence of transformative enterprises.

Debating the concept of transformative enterprise is nothing new; it is a dive into the great sea of entrepreneurial history. Among the scholars of this history, we recall the authors (Landes, Mokyr, & Baumol, 2012) of a must-read book, The Invention of Enterprise.

In archaic trade, entrepreneurial individuals played a key role, the ‘truck and barter’, as Adam Smith said. Medieval Italian commenda and compagnia and the Arabic muqarada practice administered money or inventories from their backers. The Renaissance bottega (today, translated as co-working space) nurtured talents. New techniques and artistic forms came to light; artists were competing and ready to work together. With the Industrial Revolution, the transformation of the enterprise took place with Frederick Taylor's (1856–1915) scientific management and Fordism, and the system of mass production pioneered in the early twentieth century by the Ford Motor Company. Though the maturity of industrialisation still based on atoms, the enterprise revolves around shareholder primacy and profit maximisation in the wake of Milton Friedman. With the blossoming of the bits – more generally, of the digital economy – and the emergence of the ecological conundrum, we are faced with a new transformation. It is a return to the future: the Renaissance workshop reappears as an entrepreneurial enterprise instead of the managerial one. People are co-creators and intrapreneurs rather than mere performers of tasks assigned top-down. Neither geniuses nor solitary rebels, intrapreneurs are generators of cognitive conflicts that contribute much to breaking entrenched rules.

Four Guiding Principles of Transformation

  • Transformations must reflect the peculiarities of nature, as highlighted by polymath Pierre Simon Laplace (1749–1827):

Infinitely varied in its effects, nature is simple only in its causes, and its economy consists in producing a great number of phenomena, often very complicated, by means of a small number of general laws (

  • Reliance must be placed on experimentation rather than on experience and predictions. Modes of experimentation with explanations (the ‘whats’, ‘whys’ and ‘hows’) replace or complement the methods of forecasting the directions to be taken.

  • Empty spaces need to be designed where companies, products and services can move, otherwise they are inconceivable because they are contrary to common sense.

  • Qualities of intuition and foresight must give free rein to the opportunities hidden in the folds of transformation are at stake.

During the past industrial revolutions, the search for a better life, in the sense of material wellbeing, for oneself and one's family progressed. Human conduct has focused on one's private and material interests, and the public good has been neglected or thought to descend from the providence of personal passions and ambitions. This belief has been shaken by the emergence of digital public goods, the formation of sharing communities that leverage the virtual to achieve virtuous results (as in the case of social streets whose conduct opens the door to accessing and sharing goods and services) and new visions of biology encompassing the economic environment and its effects on business and society. On the side of ‘who controls who’, the outcome of the battle for power reckons with the value placed on the exchange between the desire to fulfil one's wishes and the relinquishing of control in favour of the hidden persuader. We need only think of Zuckerberg's Metaverse and other foundational technologies underpinning Web3 on which the edifice of new desires is being built. The balance will hang on the side of desires before the force that will urge to possess an increasing quantity of new objects. If we continue to listen to and pander to common voices and opinions, the quantity will continue to rule everything. With the quantity criterion measuring everything because of prejudices, the few feudal lords of foundational technologies will dominate. To fully understand the value of what is at stake, the transformations we are experiencing should be read by combining technological discourse with philosophical thought, starting with Socrates, who did not allow himself to be seduced by objects – today we say technological devices capable of excessively fulfilling our desires.

The assault of desires that translate into consumption increases man's impact on the planet. Hence, the space available for other species continues to shrink, as naturalists Edward Osborne Wilson (1929–2021) and Thomas Eugene Lovejoy (1941–2021) never ceased to denounce. The distinction between civic, public and private goods and the shift from ownership to the service provided by a product both reverse the course of human behaviour. The automobile is a case in point. After Henry Ford (1863–1947) pioneered assembly-line production at the beginning of the twentieth century, the invention of the internal combustion engine gave millions of people the benefit of unprecedented mobility. Today, this technology raises greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change. Cars are on the move only for a small fraction of the time. If the habit of vehicle ownership were to be replaced by greater sharing facilitated by digital technologies, a significant reduction in the global carbon footprint of transportation could be achieved by more intensive use of the existing stock of cars and their longer life.

There is a desire that detaches itself from the others. It is wellbeing that is freedom from suffering. Wellbeing concerns the universe of living species and their cultures, and it encircles the three transformations – digital, ecological and behavioural. The design and implementation of One Health hinge on these three transformations.

One Health is an attempt to voluntarily construct the future using intelligence that recognises how intrinsically linked the economy and the health of humans, all other living animal and plant species on Earth and ‘natural objects’ such as rivers, lakes, seas and mountains are. Since the Earth is a closed system, economics must also accord with the physics of closed systems. In this new scenario, the many certainties of the past fall away. In economics, work and enterprise are no longer such well-defined categories as highly reassuring. As early as the 1970s, the German artist Joseph Beuys (1921–1986) argued against a clear separation between work, art and science. According to Beuys, we are all artists whose thinking is the invisible material that values work and reconciles it with nature. In our field of life, each of us can no longer plough a precise and straightforward furrow of decisions that begins in school, continues in professional activity and ends in retirement. On the business side, sectorial boundaries are being blurred by transformative enterprises, those operating at the intersection of advanced technologies and the health of our planet. Therefore, we must pay close attention to all that makes a difference in making things happen. Because of this complexity, ‘One Health’ is a construct that unfolds slowly and needs revision following a probabilistic process.

To One Health: Transformative Enterprises, Well-being and Education in the Knowledge Economy of the Digital Age, IVI researchers and thought leaders collaborated with partners from the open innovation communities with which IVI is associated. We hope that the traces left by this work will be helpful to those who venture further down the path of human activity performing in harmony with nature.