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Comparing leadership practices between the United States, Nigeria, and Slovenia: does culture matter?

Hugo Zagorsek (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia)
Marko Jaklic (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia)
Stanley J. Stough (Southeast Missouri State University, USA)

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal

ISSN: 1352-7606

Article publication date: 1 June 2004



The article explores the impact of culture on leadership practices in three countries in culturally and economically different regions: the United States, Slovenia, and Nigeria. It uses the visionary approach to leadership as developed by Kouzes and Posner (1987), who have identified five leadership practices (actions or behaviors) employed by effective leaders. Hypotheses about expected differences in the usage of those practices were developed on the basis of Hofstede’s (1980) country score. The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI: Kouzes & Posner, 1993) was used to collect self‐ratings from 351 MBA students in the respective countries. Contrary to expectations, the data reveals that there are not many significant differences between the leadership practices of American, Nigerian, and Slovenian MBA students, suggesting that some charismatic leadership behaviors may be universally practiced. Some differences to occur in the leadership practices of Modeling the Way and Enabling Others Act. Culture seems to affect gender differences in leadership practices. These differences are greatest for Nigerian respondents and smallest for Slovenian MBA students.



Zagorsek, H., Jaklic, M. and Stough, S.J. (2004), "Comparing leadership practices between the United States, Nigeria, and Slovenia: does culture matter?", Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, Vol. 11 No. 2, pp. 16-34.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2004, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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