While many professional organizations use post‐project reviews, internal audits and/or oral post‐mortems to learn from their own experiences, the problem with all these techniques is that the data and circumstances in which decisions are made are always collected and referred to retrospectively, which makes them susceptible to the characteristic partial and selective memory recall by managers who, after the event, are rarely neutral or objective. Explains how companies can overcome the uncertain nature of memory recall and the defensive reasoning process ‐ and help their managers to use the benefits of hindsight more effectively.
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