Managing your co‐creation mix: co‐creation ventures in distinctive contexts

Thorsten Roser (Department of Social Psychology, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), London, UK)
Robert DeFillippi (Department of Strategy and International Business, Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA)
Alain Samson (Department of Management, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), London, UK)

European Business Review

ISSN: 0955-534X

Publication date: 4 January 2013



The purpose of this paper is to make a contribution to co‐creation theory by integrating conceptual insights from the management and marketing literatures that are both concerned with co‐creation phenomena. It aims to develop a reference model for comparing how different organizations organize and manage their co‐creation ventures. It also aims to apply the authors' framework to four distinct cases that illustrate the differences in co‐creation practice within different co‐creation environments.


The authors compare four different companies based on case profiles. Each company is employing its own distinct approach to co‐creating. The authors employ a method mix including literature analysis, structured interviews, document and web site analysis, as well as participation.


The reference model offers a set of useful dimensions for case‐based inquiry. The case comparisons show how firms may decide to systematise and manage a mix of co‐creation activities within B2B versus B2C contexts, utilising either crowd‐sourced or non‐crowd‐sourced approaches. Further, the case comparisons suggest that there are less differences in B2B versus B2C co‐creation as compared with crowd‐sourced versus non‐crowd‐sourced approaches. Ultimately, implementation decisions in one dimension of co‐creation design (e.g. whom to involve in co‐creation) will affect other dimensions of implementation and governance (e.g. how much intimacy) and thus how co‐creation needs to be managed.


The paper presents case comparisons utilising B2B versus B2C, as well as crowd versus non‐crowd‐sourcing examples of co‐creation and an original decision support framework for assessing and comparing co‐creation choices.



Roser, T., DeFillippi, R. and Samson, A. (2013), "Managing your co‐creation mix: co‐creation ventures in distinctive contexts", European Business Review, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 20-41.

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