The theory of learned helplessness is presented as a framework for diagnosing problems and planning remedial action in organisations. The elements of a successful change strategy are discussed and attention is focused on interventions designed to disconfirm expectations of non‐contingency between response and outcome.
Hayes, J. (1991), "Expectations regarding the Controllability of Outcomes in Organisations: Implications for Management and Organisation Development", Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 4 No. 2, pp. 48-63. https://doi.org/10.1108/09534819110007282
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