After over three decades of debate, the issue of international advertising standardisation versus adaptation has not resulted in clear conclusions. Previous research indicated that the practice of total standardisation was the exception rather than the rule. Therefore, it became apparent that analytical focus should be placed more firmly on modified forms of standardisation. To this end, a highly sensitive and objective model was developed and used to obtain detailed and precise comparisons between advertisements deployed in different national markets. The results of this study demonstrate that “standardisation” is a flexible policy that can be adapted to a range of circumstances and differing market conditions and not a niche policy that is only suitable for certain types of brands in certain types of market. The study also suggests that rather than focusing on the benefits of total adaptation or total standardisation, the debate should focus more on the benefits applicable to the exact forms of standardisation practiced.
Harris, G. and Attour, S. (2003), "The international advertising practices of multinational companies: A content analysis study", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 37 No. 1/2, pp. 154-168. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560310454028
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