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Traded American options are Bermudan

Apostolos Kourtis (Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK)
Raphael N. Markellos (Department of Management Science and Technology, Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens, Greece and Centre for Research in International Economics and Finance (CIFER), Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK)

Managerial Finance

ISSN: 0307-4358

Article publication date: 27 September 2011




The purpose of this paper is to study the importance of business time, and market opening/closing times and days, for American option pricing.


A Bermudan pricing approach is employed whereby the option can be exercised only during the times and days the market is open. The authors apply the approach to the S&P 100 options market.


It was found that the potential biases that can arise from ignoring the non‐continuous operation of the market are not negligible.

Research limitations/implications

For expositional purposes, the authors assume that the price of the underlying follows a Geometric Brownian motion. This assumption could be relaxed by future research and more complex price dynamics models could be considered.

Practical implications

The findings in this paper could be used in correcting observed option prices, prior to investigating the rationality of early exercise decisions, or in measuring the size of early exercise premia.


This is the first study to examine the effects of business time, and market opening/closing times and days, to American option prices.



Kourtis, A. and Markellos, R.N. (2011), "Traded American options are Bermudan", Managerial Finance, Vol. 37 No. 11, pp. 978-984.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2011, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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