Describes two low‐order shell elements, one (quadrilateral) with 16 degrees‐of‐freedom; twelve translations and four rotations and another (triangular) with 12 degrees‐of‐freedom; nine translations and three rotations. The elements are formulated in a geometrically non‐linear manner and large strains, which may be hyper‐elastic or elasto‐plastic, are also considered. Hills yield criterion with a Lankford constant for the special case of transversely isotropic problem is introduced into the large‐strain formulations. To illustrate its application, the hydrostatic bulging of rectangular diaphragms with different aspect ratios is analysed and the obtained results are compared with the experimental ones. The elements have advantageous nodal configuration that makes them particularly suitable for analysing structures with junctions. Such a problem is an initially square steel box loaded with internal pressure. This problem is analysed and comparisons are made with experimental results.
Crisfield, M.A. and Tan, D. (2001), "Large‐strain elasto‐plastic shell analysis using low‐order elements", Engineering Computations, Vol. 18 No. 1/2, pp. 255-286. https://doi.org/10.1108/02644400110365905Download as .RIS
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