Brain‐computer interfaces: control by thought

Robert Bogue (Okehampton, UK)

Industrial Robot

ISSN: 0143-991x

Publication date: 8 March 2010



The purpose of this paper is to provide a technical insight into recent developments in brain‐computer interface (BCI) technology and its applications.


Following an introduction to BCI, this paper considers the different means of detecting brain waves and then discusses a number of BCI development programmes and applications.


Invasive, partially invasive and non‐invasive BCI techniques are the topic of extensive study and aim to allow the control of external devices by human thought. Invasive BCIs are being applied to patients suffering paralysis and requiring cranial surgery and aim to restore movement or impart other functions such as the operation of robotic arms or communication. Wireless invasive microelectrode arrays are under development. Of the non‐invasive techniques, electroencephalography is attracting the greatest interest and is being applied to a range of military and healthcare uses.


This paper provides an introduction to BCI technology and a review of recent research and a number of key applications.



Bogue, R. (2010), "Brain‐computer interfaces: control by thought", Industrial Robot, Vol. 37 No. 2, pp. 126-132.

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