The prospect of using humanoid robots in practical applications attracts an important research effort and the latest steps forward in robot technology show many remarkable achievements where design aspects, control systems and software evolution regarding humanoid machines have been realised. While aiming to improve humanoid robots' overall performance, it is required that they could work for a long time spending minimum energy without losing their kinematic skills. In this direction, a new kind of non‐linear actuator, SMART, based on quasi‐resonance principle, has been developed by the Industrial Automation Institute to improve the overall performance of biped locomotion.
Montes, H., Pedraza, L., Armada, M., Akinfiev, T. and Caballero, R. (2004), "Adding extra sensitivity to the SMART non‐linear actuator using sensor fusion", Industrial Robot, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp. 179-188. https://doi.org/10.1108/01439910410522856
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