From resistance to engagement: a contact‐contract action model for library instruction

Philip C. Howze (Philip C. Howze is Assistant Professor and a Social Sciences Librarian, Southern Illinois University, Delyte W. Morris Library, Carbondale, Illinois, USA.)

Reference Services Review

ISSN: 0090-7324

Publication date: 1 December 2003


The purpose of this article is to describe a method for activating the contact‐contract‐action model, and to present findings based on its adaptation and integration into a formal library instruction course. Contact‐contract‐action, borrowed from social work practice, is used to promote strategic behavior change or “intervention” resulting from careful assessment of what the user needs (contact), what the user is willing to do to meet his or her information need (contract). After completing the contact and contract phases, the user engages in behavior to actually meet the need (action). Its theoretical bases are client self‐determination and problem solving.



Howze, P.C. (2003), "From resistance to engagement: a contact‐contract action model for library instruction", Reference Services Review, Vol. 31 No. 4, pp. 329-341.

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Copyright © 2003, MCB UP Limited

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