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Cross‐cultural training to facilitate expatriate adjustment: it works!

Marie‐France Waxin (HEC Montréal, Montréal, Canada)
Alexandra Panaccio (HEC Montréal, Montréal, Canada)

Personnel Review

ISSN: 0048-3486

Article publication date: 1 February 2005




The paper examines what are the effects of the different types of cross‐cultural training (CCT) on expatriates' adjustment and whether prior international experience (IE) and cultural distance (CD) have a moderator effect on the effectiveness of CCT.


In a quantitative approach the paper examines the effect of four different types of CCT on the three facets of expatriates' adjustment, on a sample consisting of 54 French, 53 German, 60 Korean and 57 Scandinavian managers expatriated to India. The paper then examines the moderator effect of IE and of CD on CCT's effectiveness.


CCT accelerates expatriates’ adjustment. The type of CCT received matters. IE and CD have a moderator effect.

Practical implications

Implications for practice are identified.


The paper demonstrated the effectiveness of different kinds of CCT and the moderator effects of IE and CD.



Waxin, M. and Panaccio, A. (2005), "Cross‐cultural training to facilitate expatriate adjustment: it works!", Personnel Review, Vol. 34 No. 1, pp. 51-67.



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Copyright © 2005, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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