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Toward global competitive advantage: Creation, competition, cooperation, and co‐option

Hao Ma (China Center for Economic Research, Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of China and Management Department, Bryant College, Smithfield, Rhode Island, USA)

Management Decision

ISSN: 0025-1747

Article publication date: 1 August 2004



This paper advances an integrative framework on the determinants of competitive advantage in global competition. It coalesces the disparate array of literature on competitive advantage in international management and strategic management. The integrative framework hinges on four general categories of factors – creation and innovation, competition, cooperation, and co‐option – and three generic types of competitive advantages – ownership‐based, access‐based, and proficiency‐based. Specific determinants of competitive advantage are juxtaposed and presented within the proposed framework. Such a framework is expected to enhance out understanding of global competitive advantage.



Ma, H. (2004), "Toward global competitive advantage: Creation, competition, cooperation, and co‐option", Management Decision, Vol. 42 No. 7, pp. 907-924.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2004, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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