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Introduction “Equality is, at the very least, freedom from adverse discrimination. But what constitutes adverse discrimination changes with time, with information, with…
Introduction “Equality is, at the very least, freedom from adverse discrimination. But what constitutes adverse discrimination changes with time, with information, with experience, and with insight. What we tolerated as a society 100, 50, or even 10 years ago is no longer necessarily tolerable. Equality is thus a process ‐ a process of constant and flexible examination, of vigilant introspection, and of aggressive open mindedness.” (Excerpt from Equality in Employment, A Royal Commission Report, 1984)
Over the past 16 years, a legislative and policy framework has evolved in Canada to address systemic discrimination in employment in the federal jurisdiction, and in…
Over the past 16 years, a legislative and policy framework has evolved in Canada to address systemic discrimination in employment in the federal jurisdiction, and in organizations that sell goods or services to the federal government. Data collected pursuant to the Employment Equity Act, as well as published literature and government documents, are reviewed in order to provide a critical analysis of the federal policy framework as set out in 1987 and revised in 1996. This review is the basis for assessing both progress and lack of improvement in the employment status of racial minority, aboriginal, and disabled women and men, as well as white women, within the federal sector. Reasons for limited results are proposed, and issues posed by contemporary labour market trends are identified. It is argued that the results of employment equity policy are disappointing because the policy is not being implemented by employers and effectively enforced so that there are consequences for employers’ failures to comply. In other words, there is a persisting gap between employment equity policy and practice. This gap presents difficulties in evaluating the content of employment equity policy, since it is not possible to evaluate a policy that is not implemented.
Historically, Canada has always been a diverse nation made up of a wide variety of different peoples. However, the nature, causes and manifestations of diversity have been…
Historically, Canada has always been a diverse nation made up of a wide variety of different peoples. However, the nature, causes and manifestations of diversity have been changing, along with the attitudes towards the treatment of diversity within the country's social, economic and political structures. For example, the dominant organisational culture in business and government has traditionally been created by white, able‐bodied, Canadian‐ born males with shared values and behaviours (McDonald, 1991). Other groups, described as non‐dominant or minority, were often excluded from full participation in the economic, social and political life of such organisations. Increasingly, however, non‐ dominant groups such as women, people of colour and persons with disabilities have been entering the workforce, creating the phenomenon known as workforce diversity.
Pay and employment equity initiatives clearly have been importantpolicies in Canada and the United States. While the policies appear tohave had some positive effects for…
Pay and employment equity initiatives clearly have been important policies in Canada and the United States. While the policies appear to have had some positive effects for some members of the target groups for which they are to apply, large gaps still remain in the pay and employment opportunities for these groups. In part this reflects the limited application of these policies as well as their limited scope even if they were fully applied.
Affirmative action in the USA, and employment equity in Canada, are policy frameworks that have developed through the use of legislation, regulation and decisions by…
Affirmative action in the USA, and employment equity in Canada, are policy frameworks that have developed through the use of legislation, regulation and decisions by courts and administrative tribunals, as mechanisms for addressing discrimination in employment. Managing diversity, in contrast, is a voluntary initiative by corporate decision makers, at the level of the firm, in response to the growth of diversity in the workforce and marketplace. Provides a framework for comparing and assessing the three approaches and choosing between them.
Persistent patterns of employment segregation have long beenchallenged through what is here called “the discourse ofequity”. Associated equity legislation and equal…
Persistent patterns of employment segregation have long been challenged through what is here called “the discourse of equity”. Associated equity legislation and equal employment policies have not succeeded in changing these patterns. “The management of diversity”, a newly‐developing discourse, is claimed by its proponents to encapsulate traditional equity issues in a more managerially compelling format. Additionally, through this new discourse, progressively addresses issues associated with managing diverse people in a global context. Argues that, in the context of globalizing capitalism, a new homogeneity with different patterns of exclusion is being achieved. The pragmatic focus on “the management of diversity” may diffuse the emancipatory imperative implicit in “the discourse of equity”. Urges an examination of the extent to which traditional equity concerns have been co‐opted to divert attention from new forms of systemic employment segregation.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment of employment equity, Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) and associated human resource management…
The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment of employment equity, Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) and associated human resource management policies in South Africa. Polices and practices, and progress in representation of formerly disadvantaged groups are evaluated.
The paper comprises a general review using descriptive primary and secondary data and qualitative organizational factors.
The pace of representation and diversity at organisational levels is incremental rather than transformational. Conclusions for policy makers and organizational leaders are drawn, taking into consideration socio‐historical, political and demographic context of this jurisdiction.
The paper's findings and conclusions are pertinent for public and organizational policy and practice.
One of the worldwide movements for reform of public administrationhas been the implementation of equal employment opportunity programmes.Reports on a longitudinal study of…
One of the worldwide movements for reform of public administration has been the implementation of equal employment opportunity programmes. Reports on a longitudinal study of executive attitudes towards the equity reforms introduced in an Australian public service. Results show that, over a three‐year period, there was a decrease in the perceived observance of merit and equity principles in Government agencies, and an increase in the proportion of executives experiencing discrimination. Although there was greater commitment among executives towards merit and equity, there was no improvement in their attitude towards an equity programme for women. Implications for the Equity Reform process are discussed.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution, implementation and effectiveness of the Pay Equity Act in Ontario, Canada. Given that this Act is considered by many…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution, implementation and effectiveness of the Pay Equity Act in Ontario, Canada. Given that this Act is considered by many as the world's most progressive equal pay for work of equal value legislation, there are important implications for policy globally.
Through a review of relevant documents and the literature, the paper examines the need for the Pay Equity Act in Ontario, its origins, and with two decades of experience, analyze its effectiveness. A case study is also used to assess related procedures and effects of the law.
In spite of its limitations and the wide pay gap that still exists between men and women, many female workers have benefited from Ontario's progressive Pay Equity Act. In targeting the discriminatory aspect of women's work evaluations, the Act has resulted in pay increases for thousands of women, especially in the public sector.
There are many practical and social implications for jurisdictions across the globe, as they try to grapple with gender pay equities. Policy makers can learn from the successes and challenges experienced in Ontario. Pay equity legislation will unlikely achieve any significant progress in reducing the wage gap if it relies on workers to complain about the inequity in their pay. A proactive pay equity law, such as that in Ontario, will force employers to make more focused efforts to deal with gender pay discrimination. Ontario's bold “experiment” with pay equity holds valuable lessons for jurisdictions globally.
While there has been some research on the Ontario Pay Equity Act, there is a paucity of scholarly work that examines the details of the pay system that the Act has spawned. There is also little work in assessing the effectiveness of the legislation.
This article presents the findings of research conducted in Thailand that examines the equity practices of local and foreign organisations. The managers of these…
This article presents the findings of research conducted in Thailand that examines the equity practices of local and foreign organisations. The managers of these organisations make equity policy decisions that are influenced by a combination of the cultural and social environments in which they operate and their own organisational policies and managerial positions. Against a background of social closure and inequality theories, this article discusses some of these cultural and social factors and their influence on current equity responses in the workplaces of selected organisations in Thailand. Importantly, it draws attention to the underlying dynamic between class and gender in Thailand and highlights the need for theorists and management to more closely consider the implications this has on equity policy and programmes in organisations in this nation.