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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Grace Trundle, Katy A. Jones, Danielle Ropar and Vincent Egan

This study aims to investigate the influence of social camouflaging on victimisation and offending in relation to autism and pathological demand avoidance (PDA) traits…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influence of social camouflaging on victimisation and offending in relation to autism and pathological demand avoidance (PDA) traits. Camouflaging aims to overcome or conceal difficulties in social and communication skills. Autistic individuals report camouflaging in response to threat and being verbally and physically assaulted when they have not camouflaged. Thus, camouflaging could be associated with victimisation. Camouflaging could also impact on specialist support available to an individual, potentially increasing the risk of victimisation or offending.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross-sectional study was conducted using 220 participants from the general population who completed online questionnaires measuring victimisation and offending, autism and PDA traits, camouflaging and symptoms of depression and anxiety.

Findings

Correlational analysis found positive associations between camouflaging and victimisation, and camouflaging and lifetime offending. Greater camouflaging and PDA traits predicted greater offending, whereas greater autism traits predicted fewer offending behaviours. While correlated, camouflaging was not significantly predictive of victimisation. Victimisation was predicted by symptoms of depression and PDA traits.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to consider camouflaging as an influencing factor on offending and victimisation in autistic and PDA individuals.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2013

Vincent Egan, Nicola Gilzeane and Maria Viskaduraki

Strategic race‐blindness (purposely avoiding mention of a target's ethnicity to appear unprejudiced) potentially hinders eyewitness testimony.

Abstract

Purpose

Strategic race‐blindness (purposely avoiding mention of a target's ethnicity to appear unprejudiced) potentially hinders eyewitness testimony.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study examined whether participant and interviewer race affected the recollection of black, white or Western Asian individuals, where it was indicated the targets were criminal or not. Data were gathered using a cognitive interview‐type methodology whereby stimulus questioning was open, rather than prompted. After a short interval participants spontaneously described the targets and the point at which race was used as a descriptor was noted.

Findings

There was a clear effect of differential race mentioning in free recall by participants. However, multi‐level ordinal logistic regression found neither race of the interviewer nor race of the participant (or their interaction) influenced the mentioning of the race of the face in the photograph. This remained irrespective of the guilt of the person in the stimulus picture.

Originality /value

Extending the paradigm to persons of Western Asian heritage enabled strategic race bias to be considered in the context of persons sometimes regarded as being sympathetic to terrorism. Gathering information using the cognitive interview makes out study closer to the process by which the police in the UK are trained to gather information.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Irram Walji, Vincent Egan, Andres Fonseca and Adam Huxley

There is an association between the diagnosis of a mental illness and violent behaviour. Individuals diagnosed with severe and enduring mental health difficulties who display…

Abstract

Purpose

There is an association between the diagnosis of a mental illness and violent behaviour. Individuals diagnosed with severe and enduring mental health difficulties who display violent behaviour have inferior treatment outcomes when compared with those who do not engage in violent behaviour. Violent behaviour within care settings impacts on general functioning, adherence to treatment plans, and inhibits wider recovery goals. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This research studied 95 inpatients with a primary diagnosis of severe mental illness, with and without a history of violence, and compared how levels of global functioning and risk impacted on recovery. Patients were divided into two groups: those with and without a previous or current history of violence. The two groups were compared on measures of global functioning, symptomatology, and risk at baseline and 12-month follow up.

Findings

Both violent and non-violent groups showed increased global functioning over time, with no significant difference between the groups. Neither group showed significant reductions in risk over time. Patients in the violent group had significantly fewer prior and current symptoms of mental ill-health than non-violent individuals.

Research limitations/implications

Despite evidence suggesting that historical or current violence leads to impaired outcomes amongst people with diagnoses of mental illness, the findings of this study suggest a history of violent behaviour was not a predictor of poor progress within inpatient settings.

Practical implications

Disconfirming previous hypotheses, the paper suggests that in itself, violent behaviour does not always significantly impair outcomes for individuals diagnosed with mental illnesses, and that many other variables contribute to meaningful recovery.

Originality/value

Whilst there are previous studies investigating outcomes for inpatients diagnosed with mental illness who have violent histories, there is a dearth of research comparing equivalent groups in the same facility over the same time period. This study directly compared inpatients with or without a history of violence in the same psychiatric rehabilitation settings.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Timothy James Trimble, Mark Shevlin, Vincent Egan, Geraldine O'Hare, Dave Rogers and Barbara Hannigan

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-based group intervention in anger management with male offenders. All…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-based group intervention in anger management with male offenders. All participants were the subject of a stipulation to attend the programme under a probation order, and were at the time of the study being managed in the community.

Design/methodology/approach

Totally, 105 offenders attended the anger management programme, which was delivered by the Probation Board for Northern Ireland (PBNI), between 2008 and 2010 across a range of centres, representing most regions of the province. Prior to treatment, the offenders completed two measures: The State Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), and the Stages of Change Scales (SCS). Both these measures were also completed at the end of the programme of treatment.

Findings

It was found that the programme significantly reduced the expression of anger as well as state and trait anger among offenders referred to the programme as measured by the STAXI. Both the action and maintenance subscales of the SCS were significant predictors of improvement in anger expression. The action subscale was shown to be a valuable predictor of readiness for change amongst the offenders.

Originality/value

Assessing an offender’s readiness to change may enhance selection for specific rehabilitation programs thus reducing drop-out rates leading to a more efficient use of resources. This study demonstrates that those participants who were found to be more ready for change, benefited most from the intervention programme.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Abstract

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Jenna Hartel

This paper aims to describe the way participants in the hobby of gourmet cooking in the USA manage culinary information in their homes.

4950

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the way participants in the hobby of gourmet cooking in the USA manage culinary information in their homes.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes domain analysis and serious leisure as a conceptual framework and employs an ethnographic approach. In total 20 gourmet cooks in the USA were interviewed at home and then their culinary information collections were documented through a guided tour and photographic inventory. The resulting ethnographic record was analyzed using grounded theory and NVivo software.

Findings

The findings introduce the personal culinary library (PCL): a constellation of cooking‐related information resources and information structures in the home of the gourmet cook, and an associated set of upkeep activities that increase with the collection's size. PCLs are shown to vary in content, scale, distribution in space, and their role in the hobby. The personal libraries are characterized as small, medium or large and case studies of each extreme are presented. Larger PCLs are cast as a bibliographic pyramid distributed throughout the home in the form of a mother lode, zone, recipe collection, and binder.

Practical implications

Insights are provided into three areas: scientific ethnography as a methodology; a theory of documents in the hobby; and the changing role of information professionals given the increasing prevalence of home‐based information collections.

Originality/value

This project provides an original conceptual framework and research method for the study of information in personal spaces such as the home, and describes information phenomena in a popular, serious leisure, hobby setting.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 66 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 October 2020

Julie A. Chesley, Terri Egan and Hannah E. Jones

The changing landscape that leaders face demands an evolution of leadership development that not only builds skills but also grows a leader’s capacity to effectively respond to…

Abstract

The changing landscape that leaders face demands an evolution of leadership development that not only builds skills but also grows a leader’s capacity to effectively respond to and manage an ambiguous, uncertain and changing future. Based on adult development theory, we explore the nuanced difference of leadership development through two distinct, but equally useful lenses: horizontal and vertical leadership development. We examined the state of leadership development practice across fifteen large organizations and present differences in how six common leadership development practices including assessments, individual development plans, expert knowledge sharing, mentorship, coaching, and experiential opportunities were used in a more traditional skill-building way, and how principles of vertical development were incorporated. We conclude with specific practical approaches to modify traditional practices to meet emerging needs.

Details

Journal of Leadership Education, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1552-9045

Abstract

Details

Politics and the Life Sciences: The State of the Discipline
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-108-4

Book part
Publication date: 4 June 2024

Alex Morfaki, Helen Bovill and Nicola Bowden-Clissold

Despite the rhetoric emphasising partnership working, there has been a dearth of research related to the educational practices that reify interprofessional partnerships for young…

Abstract

Despite the rhetoric emphasising partnership working, there has been a dearth of research related to the educational practices that reify interprofessional partnerships for young children with special educational needs. This doctoral study examined the subtle power shifts in the interactions between early years educators and other professionals against the backdrop of deficit policy discourses and institutional challenges. This research adopted a case study approach and utilised methodological triangulation to unveil educators' phronetic knowledge. The findings point to power differentials and partnership inequities which affect the roles and identities of early years educators. Participants assumed emergent leadership roles that encompassed elements of social pedagogy and pedagogical eclecticism which eschewed medicalised interventions in favour of intuitive pedagogical approaches centred on the child and family.

Details

Critical Perspectives on Educational Policies and Professional Identities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83753-332-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2014

Thomas Köllen

Every employee embodies manifestations of every demographic that attach to him or her different minority and majority statuses at the same time. As these statuses are often…

Abstract

Every employee embodies manifestations of every demographic that attach to him or her different minority and majority statuses at the same time. As these statuses are often related to organizational hierarchies, employees frequently hold positions of dominance and subordination at the same time. Thus, a given individual’s coping strategies (or coping behavior) in terms of minority stress due to organizational processes of hierarchization, marginalization, and discrimination, are very often a simultaneous coping in terms of more than one demographic. Research on minority stress mostly focuses on single demographics representing only single facets of workforce diversity. By integrating the demographics of age, disability status, nationality, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, and religion into one framework, the intersectional model proposed in this chapter broadens the perspective on minorities and related minority stress in the workplace. It is shown that coping with minority stress because of one demographic must always be interpreted in relation to the other demographics. The manifestation of one demographic can limit or broaden one’s coping resources for coping with minority stress because of another dimension. Thus, the manifestation of one demographic can determine the coping opportunities and coping behavior one applies to situations because of the minority status of another demographic. This coping behavior can include disclosure decisions about invisible demographics. Therefore, organizational interventions aiming to create a supportive workplace environment and equal opportunities for every employee (e.g., diversity management approaches) should include more demographics instead of focusing only on few.

Details

The Role of Demographics in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-646-0

Keywords

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