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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2020

Sofia Schlamp, Fabiola H. Gerpott and Sven C. Voelpel

We investigate the role of gender in linking communicative acts that occur in the interactions of self-managed teams to emergent leadership. Specifically, this study presents a…

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Abstract

Purpose

We investigate the role of gender in linking communicative acts that occur in the interactions of self-managed teams to emergent leadership. Specifically, this study presents a framework that differentiates between agentic and communal task- and relations-oriented communication as predictors of emergent leadership, and it hypothesizes that men and women do not differ in what they say but do differ in how they are rewarded (i.e. ascribed informal leadership responsibilities) for their statements.

Design/methodology/approach

Interaction coding was used to capture the meeting communication of 116 members of 41 self-managed teams.

Findings

Men and women exhibited the same amount of agentic and communal task- and relations-oriented communication and were equally likely to emerge as leaders. However, men experienced an emergent leadership advantage when engaging in agentic and communal task-oriented behaviors. Agentic and communal relations-oriented behaviors did not predict emergent leadership.

Research limitations/implications

The findings imply that theories could be more precise in differentiating between objective behaviors (i.e. actor perspective) and perceptions thereof (i.e. observer perspective) to understand why women experience a disadvantage in assuming leadership roles.

Practical implications

Although women displayed the same verbal behaviors as men, they experienced different consequences. Organizations can provide unconscious bias training programs, which help increase employees' self-awareness of a potential positive assessment bias toward men's communication.

Originality/value

This research utilizes an innovative, fine-grained coding approach to gather data that add to previous studies showing that, unlike men, women experience a disadvantage in terms of emergent leadership ascriptions when they deviate from stereotypically expected behavior.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Sven C. Voelpel, Marius Leibold and Robert A. Eckhoff

Purpose – To trace the rationale, features, development and application of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) over the past ten years, to provide a critical review of its key…

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Abstract

Purpose – To trace the rationale, features, development and application of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) over the past ten years, to provide a critical review of its key problematic effects, and to suggest a future direction. Design/methodology/approach – The shift from the industrial to the innovation economy provides a background to identifying five major problem areas of the BSC which are then discussed with reference to selected case examples. An alternative systemic scorecard is then proposed. Findings – The tyranny of the BSC as a measurement “straightjacket” is beginning to jeopardize the survival of firms, hinders much‐needed business ecosystem innovation, thereby negatively affecting customer value rejuvenation, shareholders' benefits, other stakeholders as well as societal benefits in general. A more systemic alternative is proposed. Research limitations/implications – Future research might focus on further development of the systemic scorecard in different industries and organisational settings with detailed systemic measurement techniques. Practical implications – Rather than relying on the static BSC, it would be more effective to adopt a systemic perspective in measuring/managing intangible assets. Originality/value – An alternative to the BSC is proposed that involves radical change in its underlying assumptions by moving to a more systemic, dynamic framework – a systemic management system, including a systemic scorecard.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

David O'Donnell, Lars Bo Henriksen and Sven C. Voelpel

The purpose of this brief introductory editorial is to introduce the background and rationale to the special issue, “Intellectual capital: becoming critical”. This is based on a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this brief introductory editorial is to introduce the background and rationale to the special issue, “Intellectual capital: becoming critical”. This is based on a selection of papers presented at the 1st Intellectual Capital (IC) Stream at the 4th International Critical Management Studies Conference at Cambridge University, UK, in July 2005.

Design/methodology/approach

Critical management studies (CMS) is not just about theory but demands action; its purpose is to make a difference for the better. Following an introduction to the idea of what “critical management studies” (CMS) entails the main ideas of the seven papers selected are then presented. Each paper is accompanied by a commentary from leading authors in the IC and knowledge management (KM) fields.

Findings

Key themes emergent in this “critical” issue include a decisive turn to language, uncertainty and risk, not‐knowing, ambiguity and complexity, scepticism towards simplistic mechanistic models, ownership rights, and the dynamics of situated IC practice. The conclusion reached is that there is much that further work from a CMS perspective can contribute to the IC field.

Originality/value

This special issue is one of the first applications of critical management thinking to the intellectual capital field.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Sven C. Voelpel and Zheng Han

Since previous research has mainly focused on “how multinational companies generally practise knowledge management”, this paper seeks to suggest that very little is known of the

8401

Abstract

Purpose

Since previous research has mainly focused on “how multinational companies generally practise knowledge management”, this paper seeks to suggest that very little is known of the particularities of knowledge‐sharing and knowledge management practice in the context of a specific country and culture.

Design/methodology/approach

It uses an in‐depth case‐research approach focusing specifically on Siemens ShareNet in China. A total of 35 interviews have been conducted with executives, general managers, and line managers within different units at the headquarters as well as in China.

Findings

Knowledge management needs to take the cultural dimension into consideration, as culture decisively influences knowledge‐sharing behavior. Potential for knowledge sharing in the emerging market of China is higher than one may expect, if the necessary adjustment to the cultural context can be made.

Research limitations/implications

This research paper investigates a single case focusing on Siemens ShareNet in China. Thus, the findings may have limitations in their generalizability. Any future research needs to pay more attention to both “non‐monetary incentives” and “cultural impact” of knowledge sharing, as theses two issues are of particular value while so far largely unexplored.

Practical implications

Knowledge management officers are able to deepen their understanding of motivations and barriers of knowledge sharing especially in the Chinese context. The paper also demonstrates potentials for hands‐on improvements.

Originality/value

This study reveals that knowledge management needs to take the cultural dimension into consideration, as culture decisively influences knowledge‐sharing behavior. It also indicates that the potential for knowledge sharing in an emerging market such as China is higher than one may expect.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Sven C. Voelpel, Heinrich von Pierer and Christoph K. Streb

The purpose of the article is to provide managers and academics alike with valuable insights into how global organizations are able to manage innovation by the organization‐wide

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the article is to provide managers and academics alike with valuable insights into how global organizations are able to manage innovation by the organization‐wide mobilization of knowledge resources.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is the result of an eight‐year in‐depth theoretical and practical research process mainly undertaken within Siemens AG, and is based on a total of 68 expert interviews conducted with distinguished experts in related fields. Consisting of three phases, the research stretched from analyzing the interrelation of mobility and innovation and deducing case studies towards the development of an integrated model of a mobile company.

Findings

In order to leverage on innovation as one of the most important sources of competitiveness and business success, organizations have to abandon outdated organizational models and engage into mobilizing their knowledge resources.

Originality/value

The results of this in‐depth work can be applied to the reality of a global business, networked across organizations, people, borders and cultures. By providing proof of the impact of people and business processes' mobility on knowledge creation, this article shows how to mobilize organizations for innovation and, consequently, value creation by suggesting an advanced organizational model called the “MOBILE company”.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Kenneth Mølbjerg Jørgensen

The purpose of this paper, drawing mainly on insights from Foucault and Wittgenstein, is to conceptualise intellectual capital (IC) in very generalist terms as both language game…

1878

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper, drawing mainly on insights from Foucault and Wittgenstein, is to conceptualise intellectual capital (IC) in very generalist terms as both language game and power in order to initiate a critical understanding of IC.

Design/methodology approach

IC is viewed as knowledge about knowledge, knowledge creation and how such processes might be leveraged into value. It is argued that a critical understanding of IC requires a historical, contextual and linguistic understanding of how IC has emerged and how IC is used. Perceiving IC as language game and power is one way of initiating such critical understanding.

Findings

IC is perceived as a social construction and the genealogical focus is on how actors, positions and interests influence this process of social construction.

Practical implications

The paper offers concepts and methods that facilitate historical and contextual research on how IC emerges and how IC is used. Further historical studies are necessary in order to reflect upon and improve extant IC concepts and methods

Originality/value

The paper offers a critical understanding of IC by introducing concepts from the organisational discourse literature. Further it offers practical methodological guidelines for conducting critical genealogical research.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Michael Gibbert, Marius Leibold and Sven Voelpel

The paper proposes an approach through which incumbent enterprises can rejuvenate the value of their IC through “real time” co‐option of customer competence. In contrast to extant…

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Abstract

The paper proposes an approach through which incumbent enterprises can rejuvenate the value of their IC through “real time” co‐option of customer competence. In contrast to extant research evidence, the integration of customer competence is viewed not only as a means to renew the overall competence of the organization, but also as a method for ensuring that the IC of an enterprise does not become obsolete in a turbulent environment. The paper first describes the dilemma for incumbent firms regarding the continued relevancy (or “freshness”) of their IC. An evaluation of major concepts of customer capital as part of IC is then provided, and subsequently an approach for real time validation of IC through co‐option of customer competence is proposed, with application in a global telecommunications corporation. Finally, conclusions are drawn and further research efforts suggested.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

David O'Donnell, Mairead Tracey, Lars Bo Henriksen, Nick Bontis, Peter Cleary, Tom Kennedy and Philip O'Regan

Following Marx and Engels' identification of the “essential condition of capital”, the purpose of this paper is to begin an initial critical exploration of the essential condition…

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Abstract

Purpose

Following Marx and Engels' identification of the “essential condition of capital”, the purpose of this paper is to begin an initial critical exploration of the essential condition of intellectual capital, particularly the ownership rights of labour.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a critically modernist stance on unitarist HR and OB discourse, and contextualised within a background on the stock option phenomenon and recent accounting regulation, the paper argues that the fundamental nature of the capital‐labour relation continues resiliently into the IC labour (intellectual capital‐labour) relation.

Findings

There is strong evidence that broad‐based employee stock options (ESOPs) have become institutionalised in certain firms and sectors – but the future of such schemes is very uncertain (post 2005 accounting regulation). Overly unitarist HR/OB arguments are challenged here with empirical evidence on capital's more latently strategic purposes such as conserving cash, reducing reported accounting expense in order to boost reported earnings, deferring taxes, and attracting, retaining and exploiting key elements of labour.

Research limitations/implications

Research supports the positive benefits of broad‐based employee stock ownership schemes. Further research on the benefits of such schemes and the reasons why they are or are not implemented is now required.

Practical implications

From the perspective of labour, nothing appears to have really changed (yet) in terms of the essential condition of intellectual capital.

Originality/value

This paper explicitly raises the issue of the ownership rights of labour to intellectual capital.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

J.C. Spender

How does one speak of knowledge as an asset when it is non‐rivalrous and ephemeral? The purpose of this paper is to frame “knowledge management” (KM) as significantly more than…

3409

Abstract

Purpose

How does one speak of knowledge as an asset when it is non‐rivalrous and ephemeral? The purpose of this paper is to frame “knowledge management” (KM) as significantly more than asset management; instead of binding it to rational decision making, it is grounded in managers' creative responses to the typical deficiencies in their knowledge and to uncertainty.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the method of distinctions a knowledge and intellectual capital (IC) management discourse is constructed that relates, first, to data, meaning, and practice, and second, to knowledge assets and knowledge absences.

Findings

The rationalist treatment of knowledge assets relates data and meaning to purposive practice. Under conditions of uncertainty this is balanced here with a radical constructivist approach that sees meaning as arising from managerial creativity and exploratory organizational practice.

Research limitations/implications

The practical or managerial implications of this theorizing are legion. The main point is not a theory that supplants managerial creativity; on the contrary, creativity drives both our theory and the organizations that managers manage.

Practical implications

Managing uncertainty forces practice and experience into the foreground. KM and ICM must cover situations in which analysis fails when knowledge is absent just as it covers the management of knowledge assets when they are present.

Originality/value

KM (or ICM) is reframed as an empirically grounded critical theory, a direct critique of rational decision‐making and, by implication, of mainstream managerial theorizing.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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