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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Sven Bienert

273

Abstract

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Article
Publication date: 27 October 2023

Chiara Kuenzle, Julia Wein and Sven Bienert

This paper investigates the impact of CO2 vs CO2 “equivalents” (CO2e) by analyzing fugitive emissions, with a particular focus on Fluorinated gases (F-gases), arising from…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the impact of CO2 vs CO2 “equivalents” (CO2e) by analyzing fugitive emissions, with a particular focus on Fluorinated gases (F-gases), arising from refrigerant leakages in buildings. F-gases are an especially powerful set of GHGs with a global warming potential hundreds to thousands of times greater than that of CO2.

Design/methodology/approach

The significant impact of CO2e is tested by means of an empirical study with current consumption data from German food retail warehouses. This evaluation involves the analysis of the Carbon Risk Real Estate Monitor's country- and property-type specific pathway, coupled with a paired samples t-test to examine the hypotheses. The assessment is undertaken by evaluating the type of gas and the amount of leakage reported in the baseline year, subsequently converting these values to CO2e units.

Findings

On average, F-gases account for 40% of total building emissions and nearly 45% of cumulative emissions until 2050. In light of ongoing climate change and the rising number of Cooling Degree Days (CDDs), it becomes imperative to assess both the environmental and economic impact of F-gases and to transition toward environmentally friendly refrigerants.

Originality/value

The analysis sheds light on the seldom-addressed threats posed by CO2e emissions stemming from refrigerant losses. By identifying these threats, investors can devise strategies to mitigate potential future costs and carbon risks.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 21 August 2018

Jonas Hahn, Jens Hirsch and Sven Bienert

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of distinct types of heating technology and their price impact in German residential real estate markets, considering a wide…

1622

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of distinct types of heating technology and their price impact in German residential real estate markets, considering a wide range of other housing market determinants. The authors aim to test and to verify specifically, whether the obsolescence of heating technology leads to a significant price discount and whether higher technological standards (and environmental friendliness) come with a price premium on the market.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors create housing market models for rental and sales segments by constructing generalized additive models with explicit multi-layered spatial components. To elaborate a profound and contemporary answer using these models, the authors perform large-sample regression analyses based on more than 400,000 observations covering German residential properties in 2015.

Findings

First and foremost, the heating system indeed shows significant explanatory importance for measuring housing rents and purchasing price. Second, the authors find that it makes a difference whether clean “green” technologies are implemented or whether “brown” systems with obsolete technology or fossil energy sources is on hand. Ultimately, the authors conclude that while low energy consumption indeed comes with a price premium, this needs to be interpreted together with the property’s heating type, as housing markets seem to outweigh the “green premium” by “brown discounts” if low energy consumption figures are powered by a certain type of heating technology system.

Research limitations/implications

Aside of a possible omitted variable bias, the main research limitation is constituted by the integration of asking prices in the analysis, as actual transaction prices are not systematically transparent on national level in Germany. Limitations are discussed at the end of the paper.

Practical implications

This work supports investors who face the challenge of making environmental- and energy-related decisions as well as appraisers who deliver financial fundamentals for such. Third, the paper supports both asset managers as well as investment strategists in argumentation pro-environmental investments beyond all ecological necessity.

Social implications

This paper contributes to the current discussion on climate change and the eclectic role of real estate in this context. The authors deliver evidence on pricing effects as a measure of socioeconomic acceptance of progressive heating technology and environmental friendliness as an imperative of twenty-first century societies.

Originality/value

This is the first study on “green premiums” or “brown discounts” that includes heating technology as a potential and distinct driver of value and rents. It is a contemporary contribution and delivers original information on the quantitative impact of contemporary and anachronistic technology in heating to researchers as well as investors and appraisers.

Details

Property Management, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 February 2022

Cay Oertel, Ekaterina Kovaleva, Werner Gleißner and Sven Bienert

The risk management of transitory risk for real assets has gained large interest especially in the past 10 years among researchers as well as market participants. In addition, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The risk management of transitory risk for real assets has gained large interest especially in the past 10 years among researchers as well as market participants. In addition, the recent regulatory tightening in the EU urges financial market participants to disclose sustainability-related financial risk, without providing any methodological guidance. The purpose of the study is the identification and explanation of the methodological limitations in the field of transitory risk modeling and the logic step to advance toward a stochastic approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The study reviews the literature on deterministic risk modeling of transitory risk exposure for real estate highlighting the heavy methodological limitations. Based on this, the necessity to model transitory risk stochastically is described. In order to illustrate the stochastic risk modeling of transitory risk, the empirical study uses a Markov Switching Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity model to quantify the carbon price risk exposure of real assets.

Findings

The authors find academic as well as regulatory urgency to model sustainability risk stochastically from a conceptual point of view. The own empirical results show the superior goodness of fit of the multiregime Markov Switching Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity in comparison to their single regime peer. Lastly, carbon price risk simulations show the increasing exposure across time.

Practical implications

The practical implication is the motivation of the stochastic modeling of sustainability-related risk factors for real assets to improve the quality of applied risk management for institutional investment managers.

Originality/value

The present study extends the existing literature on sustainability risk for real estate essentially by connecting the transitory risk management of real estate and stochastic risk modeling.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Cay Oertel, Thomas Gütle, Benjamin Klisa and Sven Bienert

The purpose of this paper is to analyze potential diversification benefits of American real estate assets for European investors. Since European real estate yields are compressed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze potential diversification benefits of American real estate assets for European investors. Since European real estate yields are compressed due to several reasons, including high market liquidity and low interest rates, investment managers seek opportunities to provide attractive risk-return profiles for investors. Therefore, empirical proof for improvements to risk-return profiles is highly necessary in the outlined market environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical study uses a classic mean-variance optimization approach. In order to isolate potential diversification benefits two investment environments are compared: first, an optimization for the European investment horizon is carried out. Subsequently, the same optimization is performed for European and American assets. For both scenarios, risk-return profiles are obtained and compared.

Findings

Two major findings can be stated: first, higher correlations between European and American markets can be observed for the present data in comparison to older studies. Second, the mean-variance optimization of solely European and then mixed European-American portfolios show improvements in risk-return profiles for the latter. Thus, diversification benefits of American properties for European real estate investors can be confirmed.

Practical implications

The empirical study reveals diversification benefits for European investors. Thus, the asset allocation of European investors could be affected by allocating capital toward the USA in order to improve risk-return profiles.

Originality/value

The value of the paper is a precise analysis of two markets, namely Europe as well as the US. Thus, the paper isolates the practical implications for European investors, who are trying to improve risk-returns profile by allocating capital toward the USA.

Article
Publication date: 14 May 2024

Ben Hoehn, Hannah Salzberger and Sven Bienert

The study aims to assess the effectiveness of prevailing methods for quantifying physical climate risks. Its goal is to evaluate their utility in guiding financial decision-making…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to assess the effectiveness of prevailing methods for quantifying physical climate risks. Its goal is to evaluate their utility in guiding financial decision-making within the real estate industry. Whilst climate risk has become a pivotal consideration in transaction and regulatory compliance, the existing tools for risk quantification frequently encounter criticism for their perceived lack of transparency and comparability.

Design/methodology/approach

We utilise a sequential exploratory mixed-methods analysis to integrate qualitative aspects of underlying tool characteristics with quantitative result divergence. In our qualitative analysis, we conduct interviews with companies providing risk quantification tools. We task these providers with quantifying the physical risk of a fictive pan-European real estate portfolio. Our approach involves an in-depth comparative analysis, hypothesis tests and regression to discern patterns in the variability of the results.

Findings

We observe significant variations in the quantification of physical risk for the pan-European portfolio, indicating limited utility for decision-making. The results highlight that variability is influenced by both the location of assets and the hazard. Identified reasons for discrepancies include differences in regional databases and models, variations in downscaling and corresponding scope, disparities in the definition of scores and systematic uncertainties.

Practical implications

The study assists market participants in comprehending both the quantification process and the implications associated with using tools for financial decision-making.

Originality/value

To our knowledge, this study presents the initial robust empirical evidence of variability in quantification outputs for physical risk within the real estate industry, coupled with an exploration of their underlying reasons.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2024

Benedikt Gloria, Sebastian Leutner and Sven Bienert

This paper investigates the relationship between the sustainable finance disclosure regulation (SFDR) and the performance of unlisted real estate funds.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the relationship between the sustainable finance disclosure regulation (SFDR) and the performance of unlisted real estate funds.

Design/methodology/approach

While existing literature has primarily focused on the impact of voluntary sustainability disclosure, such as certifications or reporting standards, this study addresses a significant research gap by constructing and analyzing the financial J-Curve of 40 funds under the SFDR. The authors employ a panel regression analysis to examine the effects of different SFDR categories on fund performance.

Findings

The findings reveal that funds categorized under Article 8 of the SFDR do not exhibit significantly poorer performance compared to funds categorized under Article 6 during the initial phase after launch. On average, Article 8 funds even demonstrate positive returns earlier than their peers. However, the panel regression analysis suggests that Article 8 funds slightly underperform when compared to Article 6 funds over time.

Practical implications

While investors may not anticipate lower initial returns when opting for higher SFDR categories, they should nevertheless be aware of the limitations inherent in the existing SFDR labeling system within the unlisted real estate sector.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first quantitative examination of unlisted real estate fund performance under the SFDR. By providing unique insights into the J-Curves of funds, our research contributes to the existing body of knowledge on the impact of sustainability regulations in the financial sector.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 January 2024

Sebastian Leutner, Benedikt Gloria and Sven Bienert

This study examines whether green buildings enjoy more favorable financing terms compared to their non-green counterparts, exploring the presence of a green discount in commercial…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines whether green buildings enjoy more favorable financing terms compared to their non-green counterparts, exploring the presence of a green discount in commercial real estate lending. Despite the extensive research on green premiums on the equity side, lending has received limited attention in the existing literature, even as regulations have increased and ambitious net-zero targets have been set in the banking sector.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors leverage a unique dataset comprising European commercial loan data spanning from 2018 to 2023, with a total loan value exceeding €30 billion. Hedonic regression analysis is used to isolate a potential green discount. Specifically, the authors rely on property assessments conducted by lenders to investigate whether green properties exhibit lower interest rate spreads and higher loan-to-value (LTV) ratios.

Findings

The findings reveal the existence of a green discount in European commercial real estate lending, with green buildings enjoying a 5.35% lower contracted loan spread and a 3.92% lower target spread compared to their non-green counterparts. However, this analysis does not indicate any distinct advantage in terms of LTV ratios for green buildings.

Practical implications

This research contributes to a deeper understanding of the interaction between green properties and commercial real estate lending, offering valuable insights for both lenders and investors.

Originality/value

This study, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, represents the first of its kind in a European context and provides empirical evidence for the presence of a green discount.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 December 2020

Sven Bienert, Stanley McGreal and Paloma Taltavull

610

Abstract

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research , vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Markus Surmann, Wolfgang Andreas Brunauer and Sven Bienert

On the basis of corporate wholesale and hypermarket stores, this study aims to investigate the relationship between energy consumption, physical building characteristics and…

Abstract

Purpose

On the basis of corporate wholesale and hypermarket stores, this study aims to investigate the relationship between energy consumption, physical building characteristics and operational sales performance and the impact of energy management on the corporate environmental performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A very unique dataset of METRO GROUP over 19 European countries is analyzed in a sophisticated econometric approach for the timeframe from January 2011 until December 2014. Multiple regression models are applied for the panel, to explain the electricity consumption of the corporate assets on a monthly basis and the total energy consumption on an annual basis. Using Generalized Additive Models, to model nonlinear covariate effects, the authors decompose the response variables into the implicit contribution of building characteristics, operational sales performance and energy management attributes, under control of the outdoor weather conditions and spatial–temporal effects.

Findings

METRO GROUP’s wholesale and hypermarket stores prove significant reductions in electricity and total energy consumption over the analyzed timeframe. Due to the implemented energy consumption and carbon emission reduction targets, the influence of the energy management measures, such as the identification of stores associated with the lowest energy performance, was found to contribute toward a more efficient corporate environmental performance.

Originality/value

In the context of corporate responsibility/sustainability of wholesale, hypermarket and retail corporations, the energy efficiency and reduction of carbon emissions from corporates’ real estate assets is of emerging interest. Besides the insights about the energy efficiency of corporate real estate assets, the role of the energy management, contributing to a more efficient corporate environmental performance, is not yet investigated for a large European wholesale and hypermarket portfolio.

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