In the first, by David A. Macpherson and Barry T. Hirsch, entitled “Wages and Gender Composition: Why Do Women's Jobs Pay Less?” occupational sex segregation and its relationship with wages during 1973–93 are examined. Wage level and wage change models are estimated using Current Population Survey data matched with measures of occupational skills and job disamenities. Standard analysis confirms that wage levels are substantially lower in predominantly female occupations. Gender composition effects are reduced by about a quarter for women and by over one‐half for men following control for skill‐related occupational characteristics. Longitudinal analysis indicates that two‐thirds or more of the standard gender composition effect is accounted for by occupational characteristics and unmeasured worker skill or taste differences.
The basic information required by trainers who wish to use video to achieve training outcomes is presented for those who are not experts at video production, do not have the time or the interest to become expert, do not have, and do not wish to develop, expertise in electronics and do not have access to sufficient organisational resources to hire an expert. The essential information needed to make experiences with video as productive, creative and problem‐free as possible is included.
The purpose of the paper is to position Chester I. Barnard as a “management pioneer,” someone who offers an example of management theory through moral persuasion…
The purpose of the paper is to position Chester I. Barnard as a “management pioneer,” someone who offers an example of management theory through moral persuasion, authenticity, and trust in his “acceptance view of authority” and “zone of indifference.” The work of Barnard is supported by philosophical foundations that provide prophetic lessons for present day leaders.
The approach used to research the topic was inductive reasoning and constructive hermeneutics. Primary resources relied upon Barnard's foundational work in The Functions of the Executive as well as books and journal publications by scholars such as Isocrates, Aristotle, Smith, Kant, Weber, Follett, Gadamer, Bennis, Drucker, Cartwright, Heames, Harvey, Lamond, Wolfe, and Wren.
The research demonstrates the significance of Chester I. Barnard as a “management pioneer.” Barnard provides wisdom for effectively navigating the twenty‐first century organization under the auspices of the “acceptance view of authority” and “zone of indifference.” These concepts are predicated on Barnard's moral persuasion, authenticity, and trust as foundations for leadership. His work is a testament for bridging the gap between theory and practice and provides a model from which business schools can educate present and future leaders.
The paper examines the underpinnings of Barnard's “acceptance view of authority” and his “zone of indifference” as predicated on morality, authenticity, and trust in creating effective organizational leadership for the twenty‐first century. The work has practical applications in the education of present and future business leaders by academic institutions.
In support of Chester I. Barnard as a “management pioneer,” this paper explores some of the less commonly discussed implicit qualities and philosophical foundations for Barnard's moral persuasion, authenticity, and trust that promote the success of his “acceptance view of authority” and “zone of indifference” in the twenty‐first century. The timeless quality, application, and potential for leadership education, ensure Barnard's position as a “management pioneer.”
It is often assumed that prison staff are particularly stressed due to their frequent exposure to traumatic events, which may damage not only individuals but also prisons and prisoners. While the impact of such stress may be recognised, the factors contributing to its development are unclear.The work reported here is part of a larger investigation of health care provision in a Greater London prison. Qualitative approaches were used to access the understandings of staff and key informants of the difficulties associated with their working environment. This enabled us to accommodate different working contexts, ensuring that the findings were grounded in the reality of the work undertaken by the participants.The data revealed that lack of training contributed significantly to the development of stress, reducing confidence in dealing with the many traumatic situations encountered. However, interpersonal relationships provided mutual support during crises. General working conditions, including workload and staff redeployment, were also important contributors to high levels of sickness‐absence which, in turn, exacerbated stress. Poor management practices, combined with a perceived lack of support, further aggravated stress.While it may be tempting to blame individuals for their inability to cope, all organisations have a duty of care to their employees and must take steps, at both the individual and organisational level, to prevent and manage work‐related stress.