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Article
Publication date: 25 March 2022

Meena Chavan, Sunaina Gowan and Joanna Vogeley

This study aims to explore how corporate social responsibility (CSR) has assumed a new meaning today, with the COVID-19 pandemic. This, in turn, has changed the way companies now…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how corporate social responsibility (CSR) has assumed a new meaning today, with the COVID-19 pandemic. This, in turn, has changed the way companies now view the impact of their activities on the environment, customers, employees, community and other stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a qualitative case study approach and draws a critical lens to document the complex interplay between dimensions of CSR, business sustainability and social issues, applying theoretical tools such as social capital theory and stakeholder theory to elucidate the nature of collaborative managerial responses to the organisation’s challenges during the pandemic. This is a case study paper. This paper applies multi method approach to develop a case study analysis through participant observation and report analysis to investigate the CSR approaches undertaken in India by Infosys Genesis, a global leader in technology services and consulting, and Akshaya Patra Foundation, a non-governmental organisation (NGO), which operates the world’s largest lunch school program. This was an appropriate methodology since the focus was on an area that was little understood, while the analysis required an in-depth understanding of a complex phenomenon through observation and a case study. In addition, case study research has been recommended for how, why and what type of research questions that focus on contemporary events (Saunders et al., 2003; Yin, 1994), such as CSR participation in the existing business environment. Furthermore, the issue under investigation is a real-life situation where the limitations between the phenomenon and the body of knowledge are unclear (Yin, 1994). This was the case because CSR has been probed by numerous disciplines through the application of various theoretical frameworks, each interpreting the context from their own perspective. Leximancer was used for the analysis (a text-mining software for visualising the structure of concepts and themes across case studies). This process differs from the traditional content analysis in that specific word strings are not needed; instead, Leximancer recognises what concepts are present in a set of texts, permitting concepts to be automatically coded in a grounded fashion (Cretchley et al., 2010, p. 2). The paper will be looked at from three levels comprising themes, concepts and concept profiling to create rich and reliable dimensions of a theoretical model (Myers, 2008). The themes are created in Leximancer software and are built on an algorithm that looks for hidden repeated patterns in interactions. The concepts add a layer and discover which concepts are shared by actors. The concept profiling allows to discover additional concepts and allows to do a discriminant analysis on prior concepts (Cretchley et al., 2010). Words that come up frequently are treated as concepts. Although the limited number of cases does not represent the entire sector, it enabled collection of rich data through quotes revealing some of the most crucial aspects of large organisations and non-profits in India.

Findings

The findings demonstrate how these robust, innovative, collaborative CSR initiatives between a multinational firm and an NGO have been leveraged to combat manifold issues of education, employment and hunger during the pandemic.

Research limitations/implications

Despite significant implications, this study has limitations. A response from only two companies is investigated to the COVID-19 pandemic. The scope of this study is only India, a developing nation, thereby, cross country research is recommended. A comparative study between developed and developing countries may be conducted. A quantitative approach may be used to get empirical findings of the COVID-19 pandemic and post-pandemic policies of companies from an international perspective. Hence, there is ample opportunity to research organisations’ response to the pandemic and CSR as a strong arm to deal with critical disasters.

Practical implications

The paper offers new insights into exploring research and praxis agenda for collaborative potentials towards the evolution of CSR and sustainability.

Social implications

The findings develop new initiatives and combat manifold issues of education, employment and hunger during the pandemic to provide quick relief.

Originality/value

The paper offers new insights into how companies are considering issues related to the crisis, including avoidance of layoffs and maintaining wage payments, and may be in a better position to access fresh capital, relief programs and emergency funds. Taking proactive health and safety measures may avert legal risks to the company. It is likely that the way in which companies are responding to the crises is a real-life test on resilience and adaptation.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2022

Eijaz Ahmed Khan, Md Maruf Hossan Chowdhury, Pradip Royhan, Sunaina Gowan, Mohammed Mizanur Rahman and Mehregan Mahdavi

Sustainable development goals and the climate change agenda are becoming widely promoted topics of research for the 21st century. The role of cities is increasingly recognised as…

1287

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainable development goals and the climate change agenda are becoming widely promoted topics of research for the 21st century. The role of cities is increasingly recognised as central to investigating these topics. Yet, the field of informal sector entrepreneurship which so many urban entrepreneurs in developing countries depend upon is seldom considered. To redress this imbalance, this study aims to develop a decision model in accordance with institutional theory (IT) and resource dependency theory (RDT) for city managers to deploy. The model identifies and prioritises optimal strategies to address the three areas of sustainability requirements environment society and economy within the study context of Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a mixed methods research design. In the qualitative part, the authors identified the three areas of sustainability requirements (i.e. environment, society and economy) and their corresponding strategies involving the informal sector that operates within the urban environment. In the quantitative part, the authors applied fuzzy quality function deployment (QFD) integrated with the 0-1 non-linear optimisation technique to identify optimal strategies.

Findings

The findings show that strategies such as legitimate frameworks, waste management, allocation of urban public space and training programs contribute in important ways to the three areas of sustainability requirements.

Practical implications

The proposed decision model will assist policy-makers and city managers to prioritise sustainability requirements and implement optimal strategies to address those requirements.

Originality/value

Through the integration of IT and RDT, the decision model developed in this study is unique in its application to urban-based informal entrepreneurship in the context of developing countries. The effective application of the fuzzy QFD approach and the optimisation model in the context of urban-based informal entrepreneurship also offers unique contributions to the field of study.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 19 January 2023

Sunaina Gowan

Abstract

Details

The Ethnically Diverse Workplace: Experience of Immigrant Indian Professionals in Australia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-053-8

Book part
Publication date: 19 January 2023

Sunaina Gowan

Since 1945, there have been significant changes in the pattern of Indian overseas immigration. Australia has become a popular destination for Indians, particularly skilled…

Abstract

Since 1945, there have been significant changes in the pattern of Indian overseas immigration. Australia has become a popular destination for Indians, particularly skilled immigrants, during this time. Until the 1950s, Australia maintained a strict ‘White Australia’ immigration policy, which was eased by a formal agreement to favour immigrants from select European nations, particularly the United Kingdom. The policy’s original aim was to increase the population for defence purposes. Its goal in the 1950s and 1960s was to bring in workers to help with Australia’s industrial development. It wasn’t until the 1970s that Australia began to see the benefits of a multicultural immigration policy, a mostly bipartisan approach that has helped Australia’s economy grow and its society become one of the world’s most progressive. By the early 1990s, the immigration policy had become more flexible, incorporating humanitarian, social, and economic goals. Over the previous two decades, the policy has placed a strong focus on skilled immigration. As a result, Australia now has a genuinely global immigration policy that promotes a culturally diversified and socially united society. In Australia, the pattern of immigration has changed dramatically, and the Indian population is rapidly growing. Even though most of the research on cultural diversity in Australia has centred on unskilled foreign labour, many immigrants hold management positions. On a daily basis, however, several of them face prejudice, discrimination, and racism.

Details

The Ethnically Diverse Workplace: Experience of Immigrant Indian Professionals in Australia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-053-8

Book part
Publication date: 19 January 2023

Sunaina Gowan

The ‘Australian workplace’ has been used as a study ground in this book to explore the integration process of immigrant Indian professionals in Australia, as well as the link…

Abstract

The ‘Australian workplace’ has been used as a study ground in this book to explore the integration process of immigrant Indian professionals in Australia, as well as the link between exclusion after inclusion and its influence on these professionals’ emotional labour. This chapter will examine how exclusionary inclusion impacts immigrant Indian professionals and how they try to hide or repress parts of their cultural identity to be accepted equally in Australian workplaces. Inclusion is defined as ‘the degree to which an employee thinks he or she is a valued member of the organisation’ (Shore et al., 2011). When they are excluded, they are disappointed and fear losing their cultural identity (Aydemir & Skuterud, 2008). Inclusion in the workplace is closely related to higher commitment and better performance (Cho & Mor Barak, 2008). When ethnic workers feel supported in the job, where they spend a significant amount of their life, they perform better. Skilled immigrants come to a country with hopes and dreams of experiencing equality and finding employment. According to Roberts et al. (2009), when an individual’s internal experiences and external displays are in alignment, they will have no identity conflict and will feel appreciated at work.

Details

The Ethnically Diverse Workplace: Experience of Immigrant Indian Professionals in Australia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-053-8

Book part
Publication date: 19 January 2023

Sunaina Gowan

This chapter will showcase interesting anecdotes from immigrant Indian professionals working in Australian companies. The central normative dilemma is whether immigrants surrender…

Abstract

This chapter will showcase interesting anecdotes from immigrant Indian professionals working in Australian companies. The central normative dilemma is whether immigrants surrender some aspects of their identity, such as language or fashion sense, to integrate into mainstream Australian culture and institutions. Assimilation is defined as ‘being absorbed into the dominant society’s cultural tradition and thereby losing one’s unique character’ (Garcia & Van Soest, 2006, p. 14). It was discovered that although some immigrants saw the workplace as a cause of ridicule and exclusion, others see it as a means of personal validation and inclusion.

Details

The Ethnically Diverse Workplace: Experience of Immigrant Indian Professionals in Australia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-053-8

Book part
Publication date: 19 January 2023

Sunaina Gowan

Not just in low-wage and low-skilled jobs but also further up in the corporate ladder, Australian corporations have culturally diverse workforces. Due to talent shortages in…

Abstract

Not just in low-wage and low-skilled jobs but also further up in the corporate ladder, Australian corporations have culturally diverse workforces. Due to talent shortages in fields such as medicine, engineering, and education, the Australian economy is reliant on skilled immigrants. As a result, the demand to increase and diversify the workforce is growing, and Australia’s government has focused its efforts on attracting a diverse pool of skilled immigrants. As Australia’s ethnic diversity grows, businesses that want to stay competitive will find that having a diverse workforce provides them an advantage.

Details

The Ethnically Diverse Workplace: Experience of Immigrant Indian Professionals in Australia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-053-8

Book part
Publication date: 19 January 2023

Sunaina Gowan

The continuance of gender inequity has dominated most of the discourse on diversity in organisations. Few studies, particularly in the Australian context, deal with the racialised…

Abstract

The continuance of gender inequity has dominated most of the discourse on diversity in organisations. Few studies, particularly in the Australian context, deal with the racialised nature of many professional workplaces. This chapter critically examines immigrant Indian professionals’ experiences of perceived discrimination, exclusion after inclusion, and bias in Australian organisations. It focuses on the complexities of emotional labour, since concealing true emotions and displaying the emotions necessitated by the job can be difficult. Job burnout and stress are possible outcomes of this conflict between required and true emotions. There is a rapidly growing Indian community in Australia. In 2020, there were over 7.6 million migrants living in Australia. This was 29.8 percent of the population that were born overseas. One year earlier, in 2019, there were 7.5 million people born overseas. Those born in India (721,000) were in second place, with an increase of 56,300 people (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2020a). This chapter examines the challenges and adjustments experienced by immigrant Indian professionals, as well as whether these factors play a role in their workplace integration.

Details

The Ethnically Diverse Workplace: Experience of Immigrant Indian Professionals in Australia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-053-8

Book part
Publication date: 19 January 2023

Sunaina Gowan

The main purpose of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive discourse on whether Indian immigrants succumb to the need to fit in, driving them to assimilate, or if they remain…

Abstract

The main purpose of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive discourse on whether Indian immigrants succumb to the need to fit in, driving them to assimilate, or if they remain true to their identity. The final revelation through this chapter will be fascinating, allowing for a better recognition and awareness of the dynamics of the Indian diaspora in Australia, as well as the complexities of their assimilation into Australian organisational life. The aim is to highlight the need for organisational support and guidance of immigrants, particularly professionals from India. As a result, this book has significant value since it gives a thorough understanding and in-depth explanation of these integration challenges and adds to the body of knowledge on the integration of immigrant Indian professionals in Australia.

Details

The Ethnically Diverse Workplace: Experience of Immigrant Indian Professionals in Australia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-053-8

Book part
Publication date: 19 January 2023

Sunaina Gowan

Abstract

Details

The Ethnically Diverse Workplace: Experience of Immigrant Indian Professionals in Australia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-053-8

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