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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2021

Jun-Phil Uhm, Hyun-Woo Lee, Jin-Wook Han and Dong-Kyu Kim

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of background music on consumer's psychological and physiological responses when watching sports advertisements. We…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of background music on consumer's psychological and physiological responses when watching sports advertisements. We investigated how consumers' exposure to background music affects emotional arousal, attention, brand attitude and purchase intentions; and further tested consumers' information processing by using the same measures. Effects of music on viewer responses were hypothesized using arousal theory while the information processing was hypothesized using hierarchy-of-effects model.

Design/methodology/approach

We employed a between-subjects experimental design with random assignment. Fifty-four participants were recruited with 27 in an experimental group and 27 in a control group. Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) and self-report measures were used to assess information processing. A multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to compare the mean differences of variables between the groups. Partial least squares algorithm and bootstrapping were performed to further explore the relationships among the measures.

Findings

Mean differences indicated that the background music exposed group's emotional arousal, attention, brand attitude and purchase intention were significantly higher than those of the non-exposure group. Path analysis showed that the level of arousal induced by watching sports advertisements affected attention, attention affected brand attitude and brand attitude affected purchase intention. Indirect paths from arousal to brand attitude and attention to purchase intention were significant.

Originality/value

This study provides practical implications for sports marketers regarding methods to increase the effectiveness of sport advertisement. Results might contribute theoretically to the sports advertisement field by demonstrating the relationship between physiological and marketing-effect factors. Our method of measuring physiological response using qEEG is also expected to influence physiological measurement in sports marketing.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2019

Naser Pourazad, Lara Stocchi and Vipul Pare

The purpose of this study is to determine if brand passion shapes attitudinal brand loyalty while driving a series of important brand-related outcomes (i.e. brand…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine if brand passion shapes attitudinal brand loyalty while driving a series of important brand-related outcomes (i.e. brand advocacy, social media following, sense of community, willingness to pay a premium price and alternative devaluation). These aspects are explored for sports apparel brands after considering the perceptions of Iranian consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on the analysis of survey data gathered online and face-to-face from a sample of Iranian consumers of sports apparel brands that were analysed using partial least square path modelling.

Findings

The key empirical findings obtained confirm that brand passion underpins attitudinal brand loyalty and several important brand-related outcomes. Furthermore, the findings show that attitudinal brand loyalty explains the impact of brand passion on most of the outcomes considered, except for social media following.

Research limitations/implications

This study advances knowledge of brand passion by illustrating its “power” as a strong nuance of relationships between consumers and brands. In particular, this study highlights the importance of brand passion in shaping attitudinal brand loyalty, as well as a driver of several outcomes of theoretical and managerial relevance.

Practical implications

By establishing strategies aimed at enhancing brand passion, brand managers can increase attitudinal brand loyalty, attain important goals such as brand advocacy, premium price and social media following, as well as the devaluation of competing brands.

Originality/value

This study uses a unidimensional theorisation of brand passion to increase the understanding of its role as predictor of attitudinal brand loyalty and driver of relevant outcomes. It also examines the mediating effect of attitudinal brand loyalty, thus illustrating important conceptual links between brand passion and brand loyalty in the context of sports apparel brands in a growing economy (Iran).

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Reinhard E. Kunz and James P. Santomier

Notwithstanding the dynamics of digital transformation and its relevance for revenue generation in the entertainment industry, empirical research that focused on consumer

Abstract

Purpose

Notwithstanding the dynamics of digital transformation and its relevance for revenue generation in the entertainment industry, empirical research that focused on consumer behavior at the intersection of sport content and media technology acceptance is limited. Virtual reality (VR) is a re-emerging and nowadays commercially available technology that impacts sport consumed through media. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the consumer acceptance of VR technology and highlight the effects of content quality and flow experience as influencing factors of behavioral intention.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a literature review, the authors constructed and empirically tested a model that extends the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) by considering additional antecedent factors. Participants (N=570) in the empirical study viewed sport content via VR technology (Sport VR) and completed a survey before and after viewing. The authors conducted factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

Findings

Three UTAUT2 influencing factors, i.e., performance expectancy, social influence and hedonic motivation, showed significant effects. Furthermore, flow and content quality had positive indirect effects. Thus, the quality of sport content and the state of flow that users experience when immersed in a VR environment are relevant factors that determine the performance expectations of consumers and their Sport VR usage intention.

Originality/value

This empirical study contributes to knowledge on consumer acceptance of a hedonic technology in a sport media context. Moreover, two factors extended the established UTAUT2 model.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2013

Yongjae Kim, Kitae Yim and Yong Jae Ko

This study develops and tests a theoretical research model delineating the relationships between consumers' patriotism and their response to patriotic advertising and the…

Abstract

This study develops and tests a theoretical research model delineating the relationships between consumers' patriotism and their response to patriotic advertising and the advertised brand, and examines if the research model has the same pattern across different sporting events. Structural Equation Modeling is employed to test the model by using data collected from three different sporting event contexts. The results provide empirical evidence of the positive influence of consumers' patriotism on attitudes towards patriotic advertising and brands in sporting event contexts. A direct effect of patriotism on sports event involvement is found in international mega-sporting events but not in a domestic (or national) sporting event.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2018

Ignacio Cepeda-Carrión and Gabriel Cepeda-Carrion

The sport consumer experience is becoming an important aspect to sport center’s management. From this point, the purpose of this paper is to explore and examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

The sport consumer experience is becoming an important aspect to sport center’s management. From this point, the purpose of this paper is to explore and examine the relationship between sport centers’ absorptive capacity and sport consumer experience, proposing that internal knowledge management processes act as mediators in this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The study offers empirical insights by applying the consistent PLS algorithm (PLSc-SEM) in an analysis of data from 156 sport centers in Andalusia (Spain) and a sample of 3,150 sport users from these sport centers.

Findings

The results demonstrate that a sport center’s absorptive capacity for external knowledge is crucial for enhancing the sport consumer experience and also that this effect requires additional knowledge management, such as the sport center’s knowledge storage and knowledge application.

Practical implications

The practical implication for sport center managers is that knowledge management processes have a very strong influence on the sport consumer experience, when they are managed in a sequential way.

Originality/value

The main value of this paper is draw conclusions using a study of sport managers and sport consumers to increase value experience of those ones.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2011

Do Young Pyun, Hyungil H Kwon and Chul-Won Lee

This study assessed the mediation effect of perceived brand quality and the moderation effect of consumer ethnocentric tendency in the proposed consumption model of a…

Abstract

This study assessed the mediation effect of perceived brand quality and the moderation effect of consumer ethnocentric tendency in the proposed consumption model of a global sports brand. The English Premier League was selected as a global sports brand and four hypotheses were established to explain how consumers' perceived brand globalness affected their watching intention. Data were collected from 302 collegians in Republic of Korea. Results showed that perceived brand quality partially mediated the relationship between perceived brand globalness and watching intention, and ethnocentrism played a moderating role. The findings contribute to our understanding of consumption activities of global sport brands.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2004

Garry Crawford

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2021

Wonseok (Eric) Jang, Young Jun Kim, Kyungro Chang and Taehee Kim

Based on the limited-capacity model of motivated mediated message processing (LC4MP), this study aims to examine the effects of different camera types on the viewing…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the limited-capacity model of motivated mediated message processing (LC4MP), this study aims to examine the effects of different camera types on the viewing experiences of sports consumers and their intention to follow social media channels, depending on their level of sports involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The design for this experiment utilized 2 (highly involved vs less involved sports consumers) × 2 (high-tech vs non-high-tech cameras) between-subjects design. Overall, 289 US-based sports consumers participated in this experiment.

Findings

The results indicate that sports videos recorded by high-tech cameras lead to greater perceived novelty than those recorded by non-high-tech cameras, thus enhancing sports consumers' intention to follow social media channels, especially when consumers are highly involved with the target sports. However, sports consumers who are less involved with particular sports become distracted during their viewing experiences when high-tech cameras are used to broadcast games; these consumers' intentions to follow social media channels are not strengthened.

Originality/value

Previous studies have focused mainly on the positive effects of high-tech cameras on the viewing experiences of sports consumers. Based on the LC4MP, the authors extend the existing literature not only by examining the mechanism that underpins the positive effects of high-tech cameras, but also by identifying a situation where the use of high-tech cameras results in a negative viewing experience for sports consumers.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2021

Younghan Lee and Dae-eun Kim

The current study aims to explain the influence of technological interactivity and media sociability on sport consumer value co-creation behavior via collective efficacy…

Abstract

Purpose

The current study aims to explain the influence of technological interactivity and media sociability on sport consumer value co-creation behavior via collective efficacy and collective intelligence.

Design/methodology/approach

Subjects were individuals who have a mobile smart device and experience of accessing sport-related community websites (n = 513). A face-to-face self-administered survey was employed based on the convenience sampling method. A structural equation modeling test was conducted to examine the relationships between the variables.

Findings

Technological interactivity and media sociability based on mobile smart devices improve sport consumers' collective efficacy, and media sociability positively affects collective intelligence. Also, perceived collective efficacy and collective intelligence in virtual communities induce consumers to engage in the value co-creation process more actively (i.e. consumer participation behavior and citizenship behavior). One of the key findings includes the significant role of media sociability in the process of value co-creation between consumers and sport organizations. Media sociability is more likely to contribute to improving sport consumers' collective efficacy and the development of intelligence than the properties of technological interactivity.

Originality/value

Research findings contribute to extending the body of knowledge in interactivity studies related to sport consumers' value co-creation behaviors in the virtual environment context.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 December 2020

Bomin Paek, Alan Morse, Minjung Kim and Hoyoon Jung

Due to the increased growth of Internet users, the examination of compelling online shopping behavior has emerged as a vital topic in developing positive consumer

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the increased growth of Internet users, the examination of compelling online shopping behavior has emerged as a vital topic in developing positive consumer behaviors. However, there is a dearth of studies into how consumers of sport merchandise in the online setting spend their time and what types of factors contribute toward their positive shopping experience. To fill this gap, the purpose of this current study is to investigate the impact and complexity of sport commerce websites by providing the precondition of flow (e.g. convenience, content, aesthetics, interactivity and customization), as well as the consequences of flow (e.g. website satisfaction and shopping well-being).

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines relationships among perceived website quality, flow, web satisfaction, and shopping well-being by using structural equation modeling. This current study is based on online sport fans who have recent online shopping experiences of licensed sport products (n = 331).

Findings

Results of this present study show that flow plays a mediating role between perceived website quality and web satisfaction, which in turn is positively associated with consumers' shopping well-being.

Originality/value

This current study supports a mediating role of flow state in sport consumer perceptions of website quality and satisfaction; it expands existing knowledge through determining the factors that facilitate flow state and website satisfaction in online shopping. This empirical finding offers important implications regarding the function of flow as an essential factor via the optimization of website services and sport consumers' attitudes.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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