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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2024

Diana M. Hechavarría, Maribel Guerrero, Siri Terjesen and Azucena Grady

This study explores the relationship between economic freedom and gender ideologies on the allocation of women’s opportunity-to-necessity entrepreneurship across countries…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the relationship between economic freedom and gender ideologies on the allocation of women’s opportunity-to-necessity entrepreneurship across countries. Opportunity entrepreneurship is typically understood as one’s best option for work, whereas necessity entrepreneurship describes the choice as driven by no better option for work. Specifically, we examine how economic freedom (i.e. each country’s policies that facilitate voluntary exchange) and gender ideologies (i.e. each country’s propensity for gendered separate spheres) affect the distribution of women’s opportunity-to-necessity entrepreneurship across countries.

Design/methodology/approach

We construct our sample by matching data from the following country-level sources: the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s Adult Population Survey (APS), the Fraser Institute’s Economic Freedom Index (EFI), the European/World Value Survey’s Integrated Values Survey (IVS) gender equality index, and other covariates from the IVS, Varieties of Democracy (V-dem) World Bank (WB) databases. Our final sample consists of 729 observations from 109 countries between 2006 and 2018. Entrepreneurial activity motivations are measured by the ratio of the percentage of women’s opportunity-driven total nascent and early-stage entrepreneurship to the percentage of female necessity-driven total nascent and early-stage entrepreneurship at the country level. Due to a first-order autoregressive process and heteroskedastic cross-sectional dependence in our panel, we estimate a fixed-effect regression with robust standard errors clustered by country.

Findings

After controlling for multiple macro-level factors, we find two interesting findings. First, economic freedom positively affects the ratio of women’s opportunity-to-necessity entrepreneurship. We find that the size of government, sound money, and business and credit regulations play the most important role in shaping the distribution of contextual motivations over time and between countries. However, this effect appears to benefit efficiency and innovation economies more than factor economies in our sub-sample analysis. Second, gender ideologies of political equality positively affect the ratio of women’s opportunity-to-necessity entrepreneurship, and this effect is most pronounced for efficiency economies.

Originality/value

This study offers one critical contribution to the entrepreneurship literature by demonstrating how economic freedom and gender ideologies shape the distribution of contextual motivation for women’s entrepreneurship cross-culturally. We answer calls to better understand the variation within women’s entrepreneurship instead of comparing women’s and men’s entrepreneurial activity. As a result, our study sheds light on how structural aspects of societies shape the allocation of women’s entrepreneurial motivations through their institutional arrangements.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 January 2007

337

Abstract

Details

Business Strategy Series, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-5637

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Saleh F.A. Khatib, Dewi Fariha Abdullah, Ahmed Elamer, Ibrahim Suleiman Yahaya and Andrews Owusu

This study aims to identify the main research development on board diversity and offers a quantitative synopsis of key themes and contributors, knowledge gaps and provides…

1732

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the main research development on board diversity and offers a quantitative synopsis of key themes and contributors, knowledge gaps and provides directions for further work.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a bibliometric analysis, the authors assess the patterns in global board diversity research based on co-occurrences of researchers’ keywords and publication outputs of 991 articles from the Scopus database. Also, the co-citation network analysis was performed to assess the intellectual structure of board diversity research.

Findings

According to the keyword analysis, the authors found that researchers focus on the gender diversity of the boardroom while ignoring the cognitive diversity and other aspects of demographic diversity such as educational, ethnic, age, nationality, experience, background and tenure, pointing to the need for further work to consider other diversity attributes and the interaction between them. Additionally, board diversity research related to (but not limited to) payout policy, cash holding, initial public offerings, small–medium enterprises and financial institutions is limited.

Originality/value

This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the development of board diversity research (using a large archival database) and identifies the common construct as well as the potential opportunities for future research directions.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Siri Terjesen and Sherry E. Sullivan

The purpose of this study is to examine the under‐researched subject of the role of mentoring relationships within and outside of organizational boundaries as individuals make the…

2321

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the under‐researched subject of the role of mentoring relationships within and outside of organizational boundaries as individuals make the career transition from being a corporate employee to becoming an entrepreneur.

Design/methodology/approach

Using structured interviews, the authors collected data from 24 men and women in the financial services industry in the UK about their experiences in making the transition from a corporate organization to a new venture work context. All interviews were transcribed and systematic Nvivo coding was used.

Findings

Developmental relationships with structural, relational, and cognitive embeddedness were most likely to transfer from the individual's corporate workplace to their new venture. Support for both the recent literature on multiple mentors and for gender differences in the patterns of these mentoring relationships was also found.

Originality/value

This is the first published study to examine whether mentor relationships from previous corporate employment transfer to the protégé's new entrepreneurial venture and whether other types of relationships (e.g. coworkers, clients) are transformed into mentor‐protégé relationships after the career transition to entrepreneurship. It is also among the few studies to examine mentoring of entrepreneurs and gender differences in mentoring within the entrepreneurial work context.

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Thoranna Jonsdottir, Val Singh, Siri Terjesen and Susan Vinnicombe

The purpose of this paper is to examine how directors’ roles and social identities are shaped by gender and board life stage, using pre- and post-crisis Iceland as the setting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how directors’ roles and social identities are shaped by gender and board life stage, using pre- and post-crisis Iceland as the setting. Recent theoretical work suggests the importance of directors’ monitoring and resource provision roles at certain board life stages; however, there is limited empirical evidence of directors’ identification with these roles as well as social role identification as a member of the board.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors contribute empirical evidence from interviews with 23 corporate directors in Iceland on individual identification with the director role of monitoring and resource provision, relational identification with the CEO role and social identification as a member of the board.

Findings

Prior to the crisis, male directors identified more strongly with resource provision and with their social roles and less strongly with monitoring roles. Compared to their male counterparts, pre-crisis female directors identified more strongly with monitoring and did not identify with their social roles. After the crisis, mature boards’ male director role identities were little changed; male directors continued to identify with resource provision and social identification, rather than monitoring, roles. Compared to pre-crisis, post-crisis female directors described greater identity with their resource provision roles and reported that male directors resented their attempts to fulfill their monitoring roles. In post-crisis, newly formed diverse boards, male and female directors reported very similar role identities which reflected balanced monitoring and resource provision roles, for example providing the board with ethical individual identities and unblemished reputations. The findings of this paper indicate that board composition and life cycle stage might have more impact on director identity than a pre- or post-crisis setting. These findings suggest implications for theory, practice and future research.

Originality/value

This paper provides further empirical evidence of the roles male and female directors identify with on corporate boards. Its originality lies in the context of the board work in terms of newly formed and mature boards, before and after the financial crisis, with differing gender composition (male-dominated and gender-balanced boards).

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2007

Kim Klyver and Siri Terjesen

The purpose of this paper is to explore gender differences in the composition of entrepreneurs' networks at four new venture stages: discovery, emergence, young, and established.

2864

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore gender differences in the composition of entrepreneurs' networks at four new venture stages: discovery, emergence, young, and established.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used ANOVA and linear regression on a sample of 134 female and 266 male entrepreneurs.

Findings

Female entrepreneurs have significantly lower proportions of males in their social networks in early venture development stages, but similar levels at later stages.

Research limitations/implications

Taken together, the findings suggest that, just as women in traditional organizations adapt social networks similar to men in order to succeed, their entrepreneurial counterparts build more “male‐oriented” networks as they proceed through venture phases.

Originality/value

This study uses a representative sample of male and female entrepreneurs to explore network composition at four distinct stages. The findings suggest that female entrepreneurs who are able to persist in the new venture process develop networks similar to their male counterparts.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 January 2007

Paul Raspin and Siri Terjesen

Firms face uncertain environments characterized by shifting demographics, disruptive technologies, new industries and competitors, and other challenges. To survive the tumultuous…

3902

Abstract

Purpose

Firms face uncertain environments characterized by shifting demographics, disruptive technologies, new industries and competitors, and other challenges. To survive the tumultuous landscape, firm managers “make strategy” by assessing the organization's internal and external environments, questioning assumptions about how the world works and deciding how the firm should operate. We refer to this activity as “forecasting the future” and provide insights from our recent study of 394 senior managers.

Design/methodology/approach

We review the history of scenario planning, from military strategies to Royal Dutch/Shell's analysis of the oil crisis in 1974 and the scenario planning process. From our survey of managers, we identify the major perceived benefits and weaknesses of scenario planning, and how managers forecast the future. We identify two dimensions of forecasting – formality and breadth – and review three modes of forecasting – formal, focused and intuitive – and compare to complexity and costs of formal scenario planning. We conclude with key learning points from our survey.

Findings

When making strategy through scenario planning and forecasting methods, managers need to: examine the validity of current market assumptions used to guide forecasting efforts; involve key stakeholders in a debate about and assessment of these assumptions; update strategic plans with forecasting process outcomes; and regularly review key hypotheses about market events and their performance impacts.

Practical implications

Senior managers must understand the biases in managerial forecasting behavior and to work with these, to support a mix of forecasting behaviors in an organization, to deliberately allocate forecasting resources to cover environmental sectors, to selectively use managers external to the organization, to utilize a variety of sources, and to align forecasting activities with the organizational strategy process.

Originality/value

The paper presents a succinct summary of existing research, including findings from the authors' recent research, for both researchers and practising managers.

Details

Business Strategy Series, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-5637

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

153

Abstract

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2007

Siri Terjesen, Susan Vinnicombe and Cheryl Freeman

Building on person‐organisation fit and gender self‐schema, this research aims to examine UK university final year students' perception of the importance of organisational…

17622

Abstract

Purpose

Building on person‐organisation fit and gender self‐schema, this research aims to examine UK university final year students' perception of the importance of organisational attributes and their presence in three major graduate employers. This study also seeks to explore which organisational attributes attract Generation Y men and women to apply to a management trainee position.

Design/methodology/approach

In phase one, 32 repertory grid interviews identify 84 common constructs in undergraduates' organisational choice. A short list of 20 organisational attributes was carried forward to the phase two survey of 862 undergraduates in their final year at 22 UK universities. The respondents rate the attributes in terms of importance and then evaluate three employers in terms of perceived presence of these attributes. The students also provide the likelihood that they would apply. T‐tests, correlation and multiple regression are used to test hypotheses.

Findings

Among university students, the five most important organisational attributes are: “invest heavily in the training and development of their employees” “care about their employees as individuals” “clear opportunities for long‐term career progression” “variety in daily work” and “dynamic, forward‐looking approach to their business”. Sex differences exist in both the importance of organisational attributes and the perceived extent of their presence in three organisations. In describing an ideal employer, women rate eight attributes as more important than do their male counterparts: “really care about their employees as individuals” “variety in your daily work” “friendly, informal culture” “employ people with whom you feel you will have things in common” “use your degree skills” “relatively stress‐free working environment” “internationally diverse mix of colleagues” “require you to work standard working hours only”. Compared to women, men rate just one attribute as more important: “a very high starting salary”. The perception of presence of these important attributes is significantly linked to likelihood to apply.

Practical implications

Recruiting firms can better understand how Generation Y men and women graduates perceive the importance of organisational attributes and their presence in firms.

Originality/value

The paper represents a seminal study relating organisational attributes to likely applicant behaviour across a large number of UK university undergraduates.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Siri Terjesen

This paper aims to explore the phenomenon of senior women managers leaving corporate organisations to start their own companies. Women's advancement to senior management roles is…

4019

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the phenomenon of senior women managers leaving corporate organisations to start their own companies. Women's advancement to senior management roles is facilitated by the acquisition of human capital and social capital. Female ex‐corporate managers leverage personal accumulations of knowledge, skills, relationships and networks when starting and growing new ventures. A conceptual framework of “embedded career capital” accrued during past experiences and transferable to the individuals’ new entrepreneurial ventures is put forward.

Design/methodology/approach

Structured, in‐depth interviews with ten female entrepreneurs who recently left senior management positions in large UK corporations to start their own ventures support a spectrum from embedded career capital which is transferable and value‐creating to embodied career capital consisting of immobile, non‐rent‐generating accumulations.

Findings

Senior women managers leverage “embedded career capital”, human capital and social capital accumulated from past experiences, when founding and growing their own businesses. Embedded career capital is mobile and value‐generating to the women's new start‐ups. In contrast, embodied capital is not capable of generating rents outside the arena in which it was developed and not transferable to the new venture.

Research limitations/implications

This exploratory study is based on ten interviews, and reveals practical implications for both senior women managers eager to advance their careers as entrepreneurs and companies keen to retain these women.

Originality/value

The results provide support for the new concept of embedded career capital. This paper is one of the first to examine how women account for the use of human capital and social capital in the transition from corporate management to own ventures.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

1 – 10 of 31