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This chapter compares the literature on public and private sector collaboration and considers the implications for success in collaborative relationships between the…
This chapter compares the literature on public and private sector collaboration and considers the implications for success in collaborative relationships between the sectors. It highlights key comparative drivers of intent for both types of organization, explores the relationship between them, and proposes a framework for primary investigation based on the relationship between the key areas of competitive positioning and level of risk. A case study analysis of two complex strategic partnership initiatives in Wales,1 both involving collaboration between local health boards, local authorities, health trusts and other statutory, voluntary and private sector stakeholders is then used to illustrate the complexity of successfully managing relationships in this context.
The purpose of this chapter is to analyse Public–Private Partnerships (PPPs) in the developing and emerging economies as a multifaceted challenge from viewpoint of the 10…
The purpose of this chapter is to analyse Public–Private Partnerships (PPPs) in the developing and emerging economies as a multifaceted challenge from viewpoint of the 10 keys ‘for’ and ‘against’ PPPs: feasibility; planning; optimization; modernization and development; financing; project delivery; project operation; supervision; user satisfaction and accounting issues. The conceptual model and the reasons were formulated by the authors some 10 years ago, based on the literature and case-study reviews. Relevance of those reasons was verified in practice. The knowledge and critical perspective on the above-stated reasons are relevant for the implementation of PPP projects in any national economy – developed, emerging or developing, but it is quintessential for the implementation of PPPs in the economies that are at the early stage of implementation of PPPs. Although for the identification of the above-stated reasons, wide comparative literature and case-studies review was conducted, the reasons were verified in practice in Slovenia only. Slovenia is considered as one of the most advanced transition countries of Central Europe and a developed economy. This chapter can improve public policy, teaching, learning and practice of PPP implementation in developing and emerging economies. The value of this chapter is in the approach which goes beyond the usual defending or renouncing of PPPs. This chapter also clearly identifies the importance of a sincere motive for the implementation of PPPs by the government as a prerequisite for the successful implementation of PPPs.
Public–Private Partnerships (PPPs) continue to gain increased attention from the Nigerian government. However, since PPP adoption in the country not all have attained…
Public–Private Partnerships (PPPs) continue to gain increased attention from the Nigerian government. However, since PPP adoption in the country not all have attained expected outcomes. The purpose of this chapter is to explore PPP implementation practices and implications on contractual expectations of partner organizations. A qualitative approach using data collected from 23 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders involved in a Road Partnership and in a Transport Partnership in Nigeria was employed. Documentary evidence was also collected. The institutional nature of the PPP environment; bureaucratic practices in government institutions; disruptive actions of external actors and ineffective mitigation of project risks were main challenges faced in the implementation of the Road and Transport Partnerships. This study is based on the opinions and experiences of key stakeholders on PPP implementation practices in Nigeria, and this is most appropriate to elicit data richness. Partner organizations involved in infrastructure PPPs have the obligation to ensure that they are effectively implemented. If partnerships are poorly implemented, there is no reason to expect that the partnership objectives will be achieved, and this is likely to have a negative impact on the collaborative nature of partnership working in fulfilling the contractual obligations. This study is imperative to provide an understanding of challenges inherent in achieving partnership implementation goals in a developing economy. Findings will inform practices within the PPP policy area in the Nigerian context.
A public‐private partnership can be seen as an appropriate institutional means of dealing with particular sources of market failure by creating a perception of equity and mutual accountability in transactions between public and private organisations through co‐operative behaviour. The relative merit of the idea of public‐private partnership is oriented mainly around a mutual benefit. As the roles of government in public‐private partnerships are not only to provide services, but also to monitor the marketplace, a well‐defined regulation framework is essential. A sound regulatory framework will increase benefits to the government by ensuring that essential partnerships operate efficiently and optimise the resources available to them in line with broader policy objectives, ranging from social policy to environmental protection. In turn, it provides assurance to the private sector that the regulatory system includes protection from expropriation, arbitration of commercial disputes, respect for contract agreements, and legitimate recovery of costs and profit proportional to the risks undertaken.
Why do some countries (often developing and emerging economies) adopt special laws on PPP, whilst in others PPPs are governed by the legislation on public procurement and…
Why do some countries (often developing and emerging economies) adopt special laws on PPP, whilst in others PPPs are governed by the legislation on public procurement and related bylaws? This paper explains the above global discrepancies from an institutional perspective. In a contract-theoretical framework we demonstrate how PPPs can enable projects that are not feasible through standard public procurement arrangements. Incentives for private partners are created through extra benefits (often non-contractible) from their collaboration with the government (e.g. risk reduction, reputational gains, access to additional resources, lower bureaucratic burden, etc.). In a well-developed institutional environment these benefits are implicitly guaranteed, suggesting no need in a specialized PPP-enabling legislation. Otherwise, a PPP law should establish an institutional architecture to provide the above benefits.
Partnerships between the public and private sectors represent one of the strongest means to detect, deter, disrupt and deny terrorist and other criminal organizations…
Partnerships between the public and private sectors represent one of the strongest means to detect, deter, disrupt and deny terrorist and other criminal organizations illicit profits and material support required to fuel their evil acts. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and illustrate through case study, the importance of public and private sector partnership in combating terrorist financing and other financial crimes.
Two case studies are presented demonstrating how the public and private sectors can collaboratively work to target how criminal organizations earn, move and store their illicit profits. Highlighted is US Immigration and Customs Enforcement's (ICE's) outreach and partnership program, Cornerstone. Through working partnerships with US financial, trade, manufacturing and transportation sectors, Cornerstone's goal is to eliminate systemic vulnerabilities that could be exploited by terrorist and other criminal organizations.
ICE provides the private sector with information on trends, patterns, and “red flag” indicators that are identified during criminal investigations. This information can be used by the private sector to assist in establishment of internal controls and systems designed to protect their institutions from criminal exploitation.
Sharing identified vulnerabilities and information with trusted private sector partners, is the first line of defense against financial crimes, and the cornerstone of private/public partnership.
The paper stresses that all nations must recognize that any criminal act – whether driven by profit or ideology – threatens a nations economic security and integrity. In today's global economy, this impact can have devastating consequences transcending many borders.
The present study investigated the nature of Public–Private Partnership (PPP) in various subsectors of social and commercial infrastructure in India for better…
The present study investigated the nature of Public–Private Partnership (PPP) in various subsectors of social and commercial infrastructure in India for better understanding of significant characteristics, attributes and factors governing the public private participation. The Indicator Analysis approach has been adopted to study a total of 119 Public–Private-partnered projects involving four qualitative and three quantitative indicators to help build a detailed profile of partnered projects in various subsectors of social and commercial infrastructure in India. The subnational government has been unravelled as the dominant form of government participation across all the subsectors of the social and commercial infrastructure in India. The infrastructure projects in the subsector of tourism have registered high average cost and time overruns. Further, Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) mode has been identified as the most preferred PPP entry mode in the social and commercial infrastructure in the Indian economy. Since, the Indian economy comprises a large workforce, investment in social and commercial infrastructure projects through PPP mode can tap and harness the demographic dividend, which is critical for sustaining the growth of developing and emerging economies. The study provides a detailed account of qualitative and quantitative information about the nature of social and commercial infrastructure sector that shall facilitate successful implementation of the PPP projects in this soft infrastructure sector, which has a substantial bearing on the economic growth and human development in the Indian economy.
This chapter explores the rise of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) in global education policy through theories of neoliberal globalization and analyzing the practices of…
This chapter explores the rise of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) in global education policy through theories of neoliberal globalization and analyzing the practices of international organizations that help to frame and establish such policies in various countries such as Egypt. PPPs have been a vehicle for promoting the involvement of transnational corporations, especially in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector, in education sector reforms. The chapter examines the case of Egypt and the role of internal and external actors in promoting educational reform, spearheaded by the largest PPP: the Egyptian Education Initiative. The chapter questions the relevance and impact of such education reforms in the unstable political, economic, and social environment of post-revolution Egypt.
Partnerships with business involvement became a key trend in development cooperation since the late 1980s. Partnerships emerged as promising governance mechanism; however…
Partnerships with business involvement became a key trend in development cooperation since the late 1980s. Partnerships emerged as promising governance mechanism; however, governing partnerships in practice remained challenging – promise and reality seem to diverge. This chapter scrutinizes the tension between the promises of partnerships as governance arrangements and their actual governance challenges. It disentangles the complexity of governing partnerships by developing a framework based on a continuum between efficiency- and participation-orientation. This chapter identifies partnering approaches and their governance orientations based on an extensive review of literature in diverse academic fields and grey literature on the emergence and evolution of partnerships in development cooperation since the 1980s. Examples from the Dutch development cooperation provide illustrations for each partnership approach. Efficiency- and participation-orientation highlight competing governance rationales, logics and partnership characteristics. Partnership approaches that aim to embrace both perspectives have to deal with the inherent governance paradox between control and collaboration. This chapter identifies three key implications for research and practice: exploring new governance approaches and practices, adapting development agencies towards partnering and coordinating partnership approaches at international level. Understanding the tension between the promises of partnerships as governance arrangements and their actual governance challenges does not only contribute to more nuanced conceptualizations of partnering approaches for development but has also implications on how to govern partnerships for development in practice.
Owing to increasing demands for new infrastructure and a reduction in public sector investment, Australian governments are increasingly turning to the private sector to…
Owing to increasing demands for new infrastructure and a reduction in public sector investment, Australian governments are increasingly turning to the private sector to form partnerships in the design, construction, ownership and operation of public sector projects. This paper aims to focus on the use of public‐private partnerships (PPPs) to procure “social infrastructure projects”, such as schools, hospitals and prisons. The research seeks to map the current extent of PPPs and to present some preliminary findings on the cost of bidding.
The research traces the origins of social infrastructure PPPs in Australia and gives an up‐to‐date account by mapping projects that are either completed to date or in the pipeline. The research also describes preliminary findings on additional costs likely to be incurred in bidding for social infrastructure PPPs. A semi‐structured interview process involving senior managers from private sector PPP stakeholders was used in conjunction with a review of project documentation.
Social infrastructure projects are characterised as generally being smaller in scale than economic infrastructure projects (motorways, bridges, tunnels, etc.) and, by their very nature, also tend to be complex, particularly in terms of ongoing involvement with the community. Thus, private‐sector bidders for social infrastructure PPP projects are often presented with a situation where the financial rewards are less and the operational demands are more complex than for hard economic PPP projects. The private sector would welcome increased risk transfer from the public sector and subsequently greater involvement in the operational stages of social infrastructure PPPs.
The outcome of the research project is of assistance to decision takers in both the public and private sectors by making explicit factors which are currently accepted as being implicit in PPP bidding and project evaluation. Ongoing research into PPPs is vital to ensure the development of sustainable procurements methods, the continued funding of a nation's infrastructure, successful operational viability, fair risk distribution and subsequent financial success and that greater rewards are provided for all stakeholders, particularly the community at large.