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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Mohammed Rafiq and Tim Saxon

Reports exploratory research focusing on this neglected area based on semi‐structured interviews with R&D and marketing managers of major international pharmaceutical companies…

3358

Abstract

Reports exploratory research focusing on this neglected area based on semi‐structured interviews with R&D and marketing managers of major international pharmaceutical companies. Major findings include the fact that few of the responding companies integrate marketing and R&D in the formulation of product development strategy which is a considerable source of resentment between the marketing and R&D functions. Also, whilst the move from functional specialisation to cross‐functional therapeutic teams is effective in focusing NPD activity and delivering projects on time, they ignore innovative opportunities that are not directly related to the project. External specialist companies are an increasingly important source of innovation and the ability to manage them effectively is essential for maintaining competitive advantage in the pharmaceutical industry.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2000

Mohammed Rafiq and Pervaiz K. Ahmed

Over 20 years ago internal marketing was first proposed as a solution to the problem of delivering consistently high service quality. However, despite the rapidly growing…

27108

Abstract

Over 20 years ago internal marketing was first proposed as a solution to the problem of delivering consistently high service quality. However, despite the rapidly growing literature, very few organisations actually implement the concept in practice as there does not, as yet, exist a single unified concept of what is meant by internal marketing. Critically examines the internal marketing concept and delineates its scope by tracing the major developments in the concept since its inception. The literature review suggests three major phases in the development of the concept, namely an employee motivation and satisfaction phase, a customer orientation phase, and a strategy implementation/change management phase. Proposes a definition and a set of core criteria that are essential features of an internal marketing program. Also explores the interrelationship between the proposed criteria and suggests a framework for empirical investigation of the IM concept in the context of services marketing. Discusses managerial implications arising from the proposed definition and model of internal marketing.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1998

Mohammed Rafiq and Pervaiz K. Ahmed

While a great deal has been written on the subject of empowerment of employees in the manufacturing industries, its application in the services area is relatively under‐developed…

5369

Abstract

While a great deal has been written on the subject of empowerment of employees in the manufacturing industries, its application in the services area is relatively under‐developed. In fact, the special nature of services, and in particular the simultaneity of production and consumption is one of the major reasons for arguing that contact employees should be allowed a degree of discretion when dealing with customers. However, some authors have argued that service employees should have little or no discretion. This suggests that the approach to participation is a contingent one. That is, empowerment is not suitable for all occasions or all types of employees. Outlines a contingency framework for the empowerment of contact service employees. Argues that the appropriate levels and the types of empowerment given to employees depends on a combination of the complexity or variability of customer needs, and the degree of task complexity or variability involved in delivering the customer needs. It is also argued that, in any empowerment framework it is essential that the degree and the type of empowerment is also included.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Pervaiz K. Ahmed and Mohammed Rafiq

Attempts to clarify the concept and scope of internal marketing andits strategic role in the implementation of change programmes. Shows themanner and the extent to which marketing…

10873

Abstract

Attempts to clarify the concept and scope of internal marketing and its strategic role in the implementation of change programmes. Shows the manner and the extent to which marketing techniques can be used internally by presenting an alternative conceptual model. This model uses a multi‐level schema which interlinks strategic dimensions to an internal marketing mix framework. The model′s usefulness in being able to direct attention to relevant issues in practice is illustrated by a case study. The case study research serves to highlight how the model can be operationalized by presenting it in the context of a change programme, namely that of a large financial company trying to change its customer mix in face of internal resistance.

Details

Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2538

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Pervaiz K. Ahmed, Mohammed Rafiq and Norizan M. Saad

The paper proposes and empirically evaluates a new internal marketing (IM) implementation model as a framework for implementing marketing strategies. The paper proposes the…

11570

Abstract

The paper proposes and empirically evaluates a new internal marketing (IM) implementation model as a framework for implementing marketing strategies. The paper proposes the concept of IM mix or a set of controllable instruments inside the organisation that can be used effectively to influence employees so that they are motivated and act in a customer‐oriented fashion. In the model organisational competencies mediate the relationship between IM mix and business performance. Additionally, the model postulates that application of marketing‐like philosophy and marketing‐like tools internally moderates the relationship between IM mix and organisational competencies. All the major hypotheses were supported by the empirical research. In particular the IM mix was shown to be a reliable measure and strongly related to business performance. The research supports the view that organisational competencies mediate the relationship between the IM mix and business performance.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 37 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

Malcolm H. Kirkup and Mohammed Rafiq

Examines the marketing task facing managed shopping centres in the UK. The industry has generally been reluctant to fully embrace the marketing concept and this needs to change as…

6108

Abstract

Examines the marketing task facing managed shopping centres in the UK. The industry has generally been reluctant to fully embrace the marketing concept and this needs to change as competition increases. Defines the marketing task and identifies considerable challenges in the UK context. The marketing mix is examined, utilising a new framework (which is proposed as a useful analytical and management tool) and constraints are discussed which arise from both the nature of the shopping centre service itself and traditional industry practices. Problems with resourcing, information, knowledge and attitudes at the coal‐face of active centre marketing are found to be working against effective marketing practice. Draws on literature and a series of exploratory interviews with managers involved in shopping centre management and marketing.

Details

Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, vol. 5 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2538

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Mai T. Pham Evans, Daniel J. Tisak and Douglas F. Williamson

The purpose of this descriptive research article is to investigate current benchmarking practices (2001 to 2010) so as to determine new approaches which may transcend the…

2078

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this descriptive research article is to investigate current benchmarking practices (2001 to 2010) so as to determine new approaches which may transcend the traditional benchmarking model developed by Watson.

Design/methodology/approach

Previous generations of benchmarking have been developed and utilized in the last century. Watson's generational benchmarking model predicted that global benchmarking would encompass future benchmarking. Watson's Strategic Benchmarking: Reloaded with Six Sigma links Six Sigma strategies with strategic planning and benchmarking.

Findings

Most articles and dissertations reviewed indicate usage of existing benchmarking practices. The research also uncovered complementary approaches, including the Boyd Cycle, which underscores flexibility and speed, Six Sigma tools to implement significant business change decisions, the insights of Hoshin Kanri's philosophy of management, which fosters communication such that everyone in an organization is working toward a common goal, and “rapidmarking” of business improvements.

Practical implications

These approaches, while complementary, do not represent a “new generation” of benchmarking.

Originality/value

The value of this article comes from making the connection between the very beginnings of benchmarking techniques and the latest techniques in use today.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Pervaiz K. Ahmed and Mohammed Rafiq

This commentary discusses the key issues and challenges that face internal marketing research and for the future development of the concept and philosophy. Issues addressed…

33187

Abstract

This commentary discusses the key issues and challenges that face internal marketing research and for the future development of the concept and philosophy. Issues addressed include: the link between employee satisfaction and organisational performance; the need for research on how inter‐functional co‐ordination can be achieved for the effective implementation of marketing strategies; the need for relationship marketing perspective in internal marketing; the need for research in internal communication strategies; and the role of internal marketing for developing organisational competences.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 37 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Chimay Anumba and Mohammed Rafiq

Consulting engineers have, in the recent past, had to investigatenumerous claims for subsidence damage to residential buildings on behalfof insurance companies and/or their loss…

836

Abstract

Consulting engineers have, in the recent past, had to investigate numerous claims for subsidence damage to residential buildings on behalf of insurance companies and/or their loss adjusters. In most cases, they have had to repudiate the claim, institute a monitoring programme, specify minor repairs, or recommend that the afflicted property be underpinned. Factors often taken into account in arriving at any one of the above decisions include: the history of the foundation movement; the causative agent(s); the severity of the damage, and the likelihood of progressive movement. When underpinning is recommended, the engineer often has to specify whether underpinning of the whole property is required or whether partial underpinning (i.e. restricting the underpin to only a part – usually the damaged part – of the property) would suffice. Partial underpins also automatically result when a semidetached, a mid‐terraced or an endterraced property is underpinned. Addresses the long‐term effectiveness of partial underpins. Reviews the circumstances that may favour a partial underpin and, using previous case histories, develops guidelines for ensuring the appropriate recommendation of partial underpins as a long‐term solution to subsidence problems.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1994

Malcolm Kirkup and Mohammed Rafiq

The tenant mix of a shopping centre is recognized widely as a criticaldeterminant of marketing and financial success. For new shopping centresthe early development of a strong…

7012

Abstract

The tenant mix of a shopping centre is recognized widely as a critical determinant of marketing and financial success. For new shopping centres the early development of a strong tenant line‐up is particularly crucial as these centres endeavour to establish their market position and market share. Recent environmental changes, however, are having a major impact on lettings and are presenting significant problems for the development and management of tenant mix in new in‐town centres. Highlights the importance of tenant mix, and shows how a high proportion of new in‐town centres have been struggling recently to secure the desired quantity and quality of lettings, in the face of increasing competition, reduced property demand, and in some cases scheme‐design deficiencies. A case example of tenancy development in the early stages of growth for one centre is analysed in detail to observe some of the difficulties, noting slow rates of growth, fluctuating occupancy levels, high rates of tenant failure and variations in merchandise mix. Concludes with a discussion of the implications for centre marketing and management.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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