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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2024

Said Al Riyami, Mohammad Rezaur Razzak and Maha Khamis Al Balushi

Workplace thriving (WT), self-job crafting (SJC), and workplace belongingness (WB) have been shown to lead to positive outcomes for organizations and their employees. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Workplace thriving (WT), self-job crafting (SJC), and workplace belongingness (WB) have been shown to lead to positive outcomes for organizations and their employees. However, there seems to be a dearth of insights into the relationship between the three constructs, and non-existent in the context of non-family employees (NFEs) working in private family firms. Therefore, this study examines whether enabling NFEs to craft their own jobs leads them to reappraise their position in the organization, thus influencing both WB and WT.

Design/methodology/approach

Leaning on the conservation of resources (COR) theory and with the support of the self-determination theory (SDT), a set of hypotheses is posited relating the dimensions of SJC (seeking resources, seeking challenges and job-demand reduction) to WT, through WB as a mediator. The hypotheses are tested through partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) by collecting survey data from 256 NFEs working in private family firms in Oman.

Findings

The results indicate that all three dimensions of job crafting have a positive influence on WB. In the case of direct effect on WT, only the relationship between seeking challenges and WT was significant. However, the relationships between all 3 dimensions of SJC and WT became significant through WB as mediator.

Research limitations/implications

The implication of this study is that merely empowering non-family employees to craft their own jobs may not lead them to thrive in private family firms. However, if they appraise such empowerment as significant resource-gain that leads them to feel that they belong to the organization, then it is likely to enhance WT.

Practical implications

This study presents evidence for private family firms that by emphasizing on creating a sense of belongingness among their non-family employees, they can create a workplace where such employees can thrive.

Originality/value

Three novel contributions are presented through this research: (1) this appears to be the first study that integrates the COR theory with SDT to enrich the fragmented literature on NFEs in family firms by presenting an integrated framework that links SJC, WB and WT, (2) the study presents nuanced insights into the relationships between the dimensions of SJC and WT and (3) finally, this study provides evidence on the mediating role of WB between dimensions of SJC and WT, which seems to be overlooked in the past.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 July 2023

Mohammad Rezaur Razzak, Mirza Mohammad Didarul Alam, Said Al Riyami and Sami Al Kharusi

Leveraging the mindfulness theory and the social exchange theory, this study examines the influence of perceived leader mindfulness (PLM) on turnover intentions (TOI) of…

Abstract

Purpose

Leveraging the mindfulness theory and the social exchange theory, this study examines the influence of perceived leader mindfulness (PLM) on turnover intentions (TOI) of non-family employees (NFEs) working in family firms. The study investigates whether the above relationship is mediated by employee perceptions of leader–member exchange quality (LMX quality) and their affective commitment (AC).

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework is proposed that hypothesizes inverse relationship between PLM and TOI, which is posited to be mediated by both LMX quality and AC. The hypotheses are tested through survey data collected from 254 NFEs working in various family-owned businesses in Malaysia. The data analyzed through partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM).

Findings

The results indicate that PLM has a positive influence on both LMX quality and AC. Moreover, PLM has a strong negative affect on TOI. In terms of results of mediation analysis, it appears that two mediation hypotheses out of four are significant, that is mediating effect of AC between PLM and TOI and LMX quality between PLM and AC. However, the mediating role of LMX quality between PLM and TOI and the sequential mediation hypotheses were both non-significant.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the study imply is that to ensure retention of qualified and talented NFEs, mindfulness of family firm leaders plays a significant role in ensuring lower TOI. Furthermore, such a goal is better achieved by ensuring that such employees are supported through leadership that leads to their development of better LMX quality and AC towards the organization. The study however is limited, as other potential exogenous variables that may influence TOI were not considered.

Practical implications

Losing employees that join a firm and acquire valuable skills and experience is a significant concern for family firms that are known for discriminating between employees related to the owners and outsiders. This study presents evidence for owners and managers of family firms that by focusing on mindful behavior and working towards developing better LMX quality and AC of NFEs, the organization can reduce TOI of such employees.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the under-researched and fragmented literature on relationships between PLM among NFEs and TOI of such individuals working in family firms. Moreover, this appears to be the first study that investigates mediating roles of and LMX quality and AC among NFEs in the above relationship.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 April 2023

Mohammad Rezaur Razzak

The family business literature indicates that non-family employees (NFEs) working in private family firms often feel marginalized effecting their ability to flourish at work and…

Abstract

Purpose

The family business literature indicates that non-family employees (NFEs) working in private family firms often feel marginalized effecting their ability to flourish at work and contribute to the organization beyond their defined job roles. Therefore, this study examines whether enabling NFEs to craft their own jobs, leads them to reappraise their position in the organization, thus influencing workplace flourishing (WF) and supervisor-assessed extra-role behaviour (ERB).

Design/methodology/approach

Building on the Conservation of Resources theory, a set of hypotheses is posited relating the three dimensions of job crafting (resource seeking, challenge seeking and job demand reduction) to ERB, through WF as a mediator. The hypotheses are tested through matched employee–supervisor data collected from 256 individuals working in private family firms, where 232 were NFEs while 24 individuals were supervisors.

Findings

The result generated through PLS-SEM indicates that all three dimensions of job crafting have a positive influence on WF. In the case of direct effect on ERB, only the direct relationship between challenge seeking and ERB was significant. However, the relationships between all three dimensions of job crafting and ERB became positive and significant through WF as mediator.

Research limitations/implications

The implications of this study is that merely empowering NFEs to craft their own jobs may not lead them to contribute to the organization beyond their routine tasks. However, if they appraise such empowerment as a resource gain sufficient enough for them to feel that there are flourishing at the workplace, and then it is likely to influence their commitment to the organization to exhibit significant ERB. The study however is limited, as other potential exogenous variables that influence ERB were not considered.

Practical implications

This study presents evidence for family business owners and managers to provide the pertinent resource support to their NFEs, so that they can flourish and contribute to the employer.

Originality/value

The current study contributes to the under-researched and fragmented literature on NFEs working in family firms. Furthermore, this appears to be among the first study that looks into workplace flourishing and ERB among NFEs in the realm of family business.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2022

Mohammad Rezaur Razzak

Drawing on the stakeholder theory, the purpose of this study is to examine relationships between family identity, emotional attachment and binding social ties, and commitment of…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the stakeholder theory, the purpose of this study is to examine relationships between family identity, emotional attachment and binding social ties, and commitment of family firm owners to the family enterprise in the context of an emerging economy. Furthermore, this study examines whether the strength of the above relationships significantly vary between the founder generation and the subsequent generation of owners.

Design/methodology/approach

A set of hypotheses is tested by applying partial least squares structural equation modeling on a sample of 357 family-owned manufacturing companies in Bangladesh. Deploying SmartPLS (v. 3.2), the path model is analyzed through bootstrapping procedure. The moderating effect is tested through multigroup analysis.

Findings

The findings suggest that the relationships between emotional attachment and family identity and commitment are positive and significant, whereas the association between binding social ties and commitment was not significant. Furthermore, a multigroup analysis revealed that there is a significant difference between the founder generation and their next generation in terms of influence of binding social ties and family identity on commitment, whereas there appears to be no difference in terms of emotional attachment and commitment between the two generations.

Practical implications

This study shows that compared to the founder generation, the next generation prioritizes family identity and social bonds, which leads to greater levels of collective commitment to the organization. Such knowledge may provide clues to incumbent family-firm leaders by identifying the areas where they need to emphasize in generating greater levels of commitment among their successors.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this appears to be the first such study that provides a nuanced understanding of how family generation in control of the family firm influences the relationships between psychosocial components of socioemotional wealth and collective commitment of the owners of family firms in the context of an emerging economy.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2023

Said Al Riyami, Mohammad Rezaur Razzak and Adil S. Al-Busaidi

This study investigates whether prolonged durations of work from home (WFH) leads to workplace ostracism (WO), and whether such relationship is moderated by perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates whether prolonged durations of work from home (WFH) leads to workplace ostracism (WO), and whether such relationship is moderated by perceived organizational support (POS). The context of this research is based on the post-COVID-19 pandemic period, when most organizations have either recalled their employees back to their physical workplaces, or in other cases employees are relegated to continued WFH or to a hybrid model that combines both in-office and remote work. The importance of this study is the spotlight it brings to employees who feel ostracized from their workplace due the continued practice of WFH.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model is developed, by leveraging the conservation of resources (COR) theory. The hypotheses are tested by using cross-sectional survey data collected from 240 employees working in various organizations in the Sultanate of Oman from both public and private sectors. The data are analyzed using R Core Team software.

Findings

The findings of the study reveal that WFH does not have any direct impact on WO. However, when POS is applied as moderator, the results indicate that at low levels of POS, the relationship between WFH and WO becomes significant, but not at moderate to high levels of POS.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides insights into how the phenomenon of WFH is likely to influence perceptions of employees in terms of feeling excluded from the organization by being asked to continue to work remotely, while many of their colleagues have returned to their prepandemic workplaces. The implications of the findings are relevant to the growing literature on employee experiences in the realm of emerging work models being introduced by organizations. Among the limitations of this study is the fact that there may be missing mediators that link WFH with WO, and the possibility that such a study if replicated in other cultural contexts may yield different results.

Practical implications

This study presents evidence to managers on leveraging the power of organizational support to ensure that negative emotions among employees such as WO are mitigated.

Originality/value

This appears to be among the first studies that attempts to provide insights into employee perceptions about WO in the postpandemic period, especially with regards to the emerging work arrangements that are primarily based on WFH that are being widely adopted by many organizations around the world. The results of this study provide useful information about how WFH and POS come together to influence emotions of individuals who have been longing to get back to their normal workplace once the social distancing guidelines of the pandemic were lifted.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 August 2019

Mohammad Rezaur Razzak and Suaad Jassem

Although family business literature acknowledges that family firms owners are motivated by a set of socioemotional wealth (SEW) goals along with firm-centric business goals, yet a…

Abstract

Purpose

Although family business literature acknowledges that family firms owners are motivated by a set of socioemotional wealth (SEW) goals along with firm-centric business goals, yet a consistently predictable pattern of relationship between SEW and financial wealth is yet to be discerned. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model based on the stakeholder approach to suggest that family commitment mediates the association between the dimensions of SEW and firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A set of hypotheses are proposed that are tested using structural equation modeling with data collected from 357 medium to large sized privately held family firms in Bangladesh. The data analysis is done with SmartPLS (v.3.2).

Findings

The results indicate that family commitment partially mediates the relationships between family control and influence, family identification, emotional attachment and renewal of family bonds through dynastic succession and firm performance. The only non-significant relationship was between binding social ties and firm performance. The results provide a more nuanced understanding of the link between SEW goals and firm performance, and present important implications for theory and practice.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectional nature of the study exposes it to the specter of common method bias despite the fact that procedural remedies were initiated to minimize the impact of such occurrence. A longitudinal study with data obtained from multiple individuals at different levels of the organization would possibly yield more robust findings. Furthermore, in the absence of a multi-country and multi-sector analysis, a broad generalization of the findings may not be feasible.

Practical implications

The knowledge that family identity, emotional attachment and renewal of family bonds through dynastic succession may be leveraged to enhance the commitment of subsequent generation of family firm owners to the firm that may be pertinent to incumbents who desire to see their successors more engaged in the family enterprise. Furthermore, knowing that excessive focus on family control over the firm leads to negative outcomes is also pertinent to family firm leaders.

Social implications

Survival of family businesses is vital to the global economy as one of the primary drivers of global GDP growth and source of new employment. Policy makers can benefit from the findings of this study to customize policies that take into cognizance the importance of SEW owners of family firms and the fact that some of these SEW goals actually benefit the firm in terms of enhanced commitment to the enterprise and consequently superior firm performance.

Originality/value

The role of family commitment as a mediator between SEW and firm performance has not been dominant in the literature. By providing a finer-grained understanding of how family commitment accounts for the relationship between family-centric non-economic goals such as SEW and firm-centric goals such as business performance, the study presents a theoretical link between sociomemotional wealth and financial wealth in the context of private family firms.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 November 2023

Nawal Al Hosni, Ramo Palalić and Mohammad Rezaur Razzak

This paper aims to reveal the role of two theories that impact seniors’ entrepreneurial intentions. Both the socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) and the self-determination…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to reveal the role of two theories that impact seniors’ entrepreneurial intentions. Both the socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) and the self-determination theory (SDT) re-shape seniors’ intentions to create entrepreneurial opportunities and activities after they retire.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses secondary data resources for developing the research concept, which might leverage seniors’ ultimate goal of creating entrepreneurial activities. A comprehensive past-paper analysis was performed. One hundred papers were initially considered for inclusion in this research. However, after a rigorous synthesisation process, 80 publications were selected for further analysis.

Findings

This paper presents an investigation of seniors’ entrepreneurship, with a specific emphasis on the SST and the SDT. It suggests potential models that could gauge senior entrepreneurs’ propensity to engage in entrepreneurial endeavours to support the socioeconomic advancement of society. Furthermore, this research discussed the limitations of the enlightening concepts presented to scholars and decision-makers.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper is illuminated by its idea of integrating two theories (the SST and the SDT), suggesting that these theories can possibly better observe senior entrepreneurs’ intentions in creating an entrepreneurial venture after they retire.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2023

Said Al Riyami, Mohammad Rezaur Razzak and Adil S. Al-Busaidi

Sweeping changes are underway in the world of work where new work-models such as permanent work-from home mandates are being implemented by many organizations in the aftermath of…

Abstract

Purpose

Sweeping changes are underway in the world of work where new work-models such as permanent work-from home mandates are being implemented by many organizations in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although cost benefits for organizations are obvious from such measures, little is known about how emotions of employees are affected by such measures. A recent industry survey reveals that some employees feel that they are being ostracized from their normal workplace while others are being allowed to return to their normal office settings. However, there appears to be dearth of empirical studies on how employees are coping with workplace ostracism (WO), and whether such emotions are related to factors such as their levels of mindfulness and perceived organizational support (POS). Therefore, this study deploys the stress and coping theory to suggest that individuals with high levels of mindfulness are less likely to experience WO, and that such a relationship is further moderated by POS.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses developed in this study are tested through survey data collected from 240 employees who work for various large organizations in Oman. Eligible respondents are employees who have been directed by their employers to continue to work from home even after a large portion of their colleagues have returned to their physical offices.

Findings

The data is analyzed with R Core Team software. The findings reveal that employees with high levels of mindfulness reported lower levels of WO. Furthermore, POS moderates the inverse relationship between mindfulness and WO at moderate and high levels of POS but not when organizational support is perceived to be at low levels.

Research limitations/implications

This study suffers from several limitations. First, the study is cross-sectional in nature and does not capture how the perceptions of workplace ostracism change over time. Considering that majority of the new directives to employees to permanently work from their remote locations are quite recent. Second, this study posits the effect of mindfulness as a trait on WO and does not consider other constructs. Third, the demographic details of the respondents indicates that bulk of the employees that were asked by their employers to continue to work from home even after the COVID-19 restrictions were lifted were women (68%).

Practical implications

Practically, the relationships between mindfulness, perceived organizational support and workplace ostracism provide useful managerial knowledge. This is particularly important considering the fact that the influence on employee perceptions due to these new work models are yet to be fully realized. As a result, managers can fine-tune their organizational communication and their training programs toward developing awareness of the present among employees to enable them to appraise new organizational policies from a more holistic long-term perspective. Additionally, the management can also emphasize sufficient material and psychological support for employees that are required to remain working from home.

Originality/value

This study appears to be among the first empirical research that provides evidence on the inverse relationship between mindfulness and WO, especially in the context of the new work-models in the post pandemic period. Additionally, the study demonstrates that moderate to high levels of POS can further mitigate WO among individuals with higher levels of mindfulness.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2023

Mohammad Rezaur Razzak and Said Al Riyami

Drawing on the socioemotional selectivity theory and the volunteerism literature, this study aims to examine the influence of empathy, altruism and opportunity recognition, on…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the socioemotional selectivity theory and the volunteerism literature, this study aims to examine the influence of empathy, altruism and opportunity recognition, on social entrepreneurial intentions (SEI) of people who have retired from a full-time career. Furthermore, the study examines whether the above-mentioned relationships are mediated by moral obligation.

Design/methodology/approach

A set of hypotheses is tested by applying partial least squares structural equation modelling on a survey sample of 227 retirees in Oman, who had participated in an entrepreneurial leadership training after retirement. Using SmartPLS software, the path model is tested through bootstrapping.

Findings

The findings suggest that altruism and opportunity recognition do not have a direct relationship with SEI, however, they are significant only when mediated through moral obligation. Nevertheless, empathy has a significant direct association with SEI, and an indirect relationship through moral obligation.

Practical implications

The findings of this study demonstrate that to develop intentions to indulge in social entrepreneurship, among retirees who are approaching their senior years, the focus should be on driving their sense of moral obligation to society. Hence, policymakers and authorities connected to social wellbeing goals can fine-tune their initiatives, such as training, by emphasizing on moral obligation to address social issues through social entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study is twofold. Firstly, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, it seems to be among the first empirical study that is at the crossroads of the senior entrepreneurship and the social entrepreneurship literature. Secondly, this study fills a gap in the extant literature by deploying the socioemotional selectivity theory to examine the antecedents of SEI of people who have retired from full-time employment in their early to late senior years.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2022

Mohammad Rezaur Razzak

Drawing on the combined theoretical perspectives offered by the sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices view and the resource-based view (RBV), this study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the combined theoretical perspectives offered by the sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices view and the resource-based view (RBV), this study aims to examine whether pursuit of environmental, social and economic sustainability measures of SSCM practices drive competitive advantage (CA) among fashion-apparel manufacturing organizations in an emerging economy. Furthermore, the study investigates whether the above relationships are mediated by productivity.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a theoretically supported conceptual framework, a set of hypotheses are tested by applying partial least squares structural equation modeling on a sample of 345 export-oriented fashion-apparel manufacturing companies in Bangladesh. SmartPLS (v.3.2) is applied to analyze the path model through bootstrapping procedure.

Findings

The findings suggest that the direct relationship between social sustainability dimension of SSCM practices along and CA is positive and significant. While the direct relationships between environmental sustainability and CA, and economic sustainability and CA, were found to be non-significant. However, when productivity was applied as a mediator, all the paths were significant.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to the strategic management literature by presenting a combined theoretical perspective proposing the idea that sustainable supply chain practices can influence both productivity and CA, where productivity is a pertinent mediator.

Practical implications

The study presents evidence for ready-made garments manufacturers in emerging economies on how compliance with environmental, social and economic sustainability measures in the supply chain of apparel manufacturers leads to gains in CA for the firms. Additionally, the study shows that such measures must also have a net positive impact on productivity to be able to influence CA significantly.

Originality/value

This paper appears to be among the first study that presents a framework based on a combined view of SSCM practices and RBV to empirically investigate the role of productivity as a mediator in the relationships between the sustainability dimensions of SSCM practices and CA in apparel manufacturing.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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