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The purpose of this paper is to investigate how trust, honesty and transparency impact the willingness and timeliness of communicating financial information between…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate how trust, honesty and transparency impact the willingness and timeliness of communicating financial information between Government Finance Officers (GFOs) and members of the municipal boards they serve.
Survey data was collected from professionals who work with municipalities to ensure government resources are properly managed. Nonparametric local-linear regression was used to analyze the data.
Evidence suggests that trust in the board, GFO preference for honesty and greater transparency of the municipality influence the timeliness of communication. There is evidence that when the GFO and board members have a working relationship built on trust and the GFO has a preference for honesty, the GFO is more willing to share positive information with the board. In addition, there is evidence that with greater transparency and trust in the board, there is a reduction in the time of sharing positive information in situations where there is little discretion in disclosing and less willingness to share information.
A principal limitation of this study is the small sample size. In addition, the study was conducted using only participants from the pool of members of the Government Finance Officers Association of Texas. As an exploratory study, the survey included a minimal number of questions to gather data from actual GFOs and included only six possible scenarios. The time constraint resulted in a reduced number of questions related to the models used. Other limitations include the potential of missing variables, factors or perceptions related to scenarios not presented in the survey instrument.
The findings suggest that with greater transparency, there is less time between the event and the GFO communication to the board providing the opportunity to improve the effectiveness of the decision-making process.
This study is the first to explore the effects of increased transparency on the level of communication between the GFO and the board.
Performance measures have long been a topic of interest in higher education although no consensus on the best way to measure performance has been achieved. This paper…
Performance measures have long been a topic of interest in higher education although no consensus on the best way to measure performance has been achieved. This paper examines the extent and effectiveness of service efforts and accomplishment reporting by public and not-for-profit U.S. colleges and universities using survey data provided by the National Association of College and University Business Officers. Effectiveness is evaluated using the Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) suggested criteria. Regression analysis suggests an association between the extent of disclosure and size, leverage, level of education provided, and regional accreditation agency. Private institutions rate themselves as more effective communicators. Effectiveness of communication is also associated with the extent of disclosure, level of education provided and accreditation region.
Given the well-reported concerns over cost containment in public higher education, we believe performance should be measured based on cost efficiency and spending choices…
Given the well-reported concerns over cost containment in public higher education, we believe performance should be measured based on cost efficiency and spending choices. This study develops three regression models linking presidential pay and public university performance with data for public universities that have no president change for fiscal year 2007 to fiscal year 2010. Analysis finds a statistically significant inverse relationship between presidential pay and resources devoted to instruction, the primary mission of most universities. A relationship for presidential compensation and enrollment is found for the individual fiscal years examined but not over time. Presidential compensation over time is positively related to spending on areas other than instruction.
The ability of financial statement users, investors, donors and academic researchers to compare financial information issued by nonprofit universities, hospitals…
The ability of financial statement users, investors, donors and academic researchers to compare financial information issued by nonprofit universities, hospitals, fund-raising organizations and government agencies is affected by their understanding of current accounting recognition and reporting guidance. Public nonprofit organizations report different financial results from private nonprofit organizations. This study looks at the events that brought about the divergence in nonprofit financial accounting recognition and reporting for higher education institutions, discusses specific differences, and offers a look at additional changes in recognition and reporting for the sector currently underway.
Internal audit is getting recognition thanks to media coverage of alleged fraudulent activities and new regulations that require the evaluation of internal controls. Given…
Internal audit is getting recognition thanks to media coverage of alleged fraudulent activities and new regulations that require the evaluation of internal controls. Given this attention, Harrington (2004) identified what organizations should look for when hiring a director of internal audit. This paper reports an investigation of college and university internal audit departments that determines if the directors hold the suggested qualifications and if the qualifications differ based on gender. Differences among the directors of internal auditor include demographic information such as salary, experience and number of staff members as well as who hires the director, and whether the institution has a governing board audit committee. Even with the differences, college and university internal audit directors are very much alike.
The ability of investors, taxpayers and researchers to compare financial statements issued by hospitals, universities and other governmental agencies is affected by their understanding of current accounting and reporting rules. Publicly owned not-for-profit organizations report different financial results from those that are privately owned. This study looks at the historical events that brought about the accounting and reporting divergences, discusses the recognition and reporting differences, and explores the implications for statement users.
Over the past decade, the accountability of nonprofit organizations has been a concern. Our paper reports one form of accountability, the "A-133" or "single" audit, which…
Over the past decade, the accountability of nonprofit organizations has been a concern. Our paper reports one form of accountability, the "A-133" or "single" audit, which is required for nonprofits receiving substantial federal funding. We report on 11,841 audits from 1997 to 1999. Overall, compliance appears to be quite high. Our study indicates that smaller nonprofits, those that are new to government grants, and those with prior audit findings have a significantly higher rate of adverse audit findings. One policy implication of our work might be to provide federal funding specifically for Single Audit Act compliance to these nonprofits.
Public universities began reporting the costs for nonpension retiree benefit obligations known as other postemployment benefits (OPEB) in their fiscal 2008 financial…
Public universities began reporting the costs for nonpension retiree benefit obligations known as other postemployment benefits (OPEB) in their fiscal 2008 financial statements. The reported OPEB obligation is the projected benefits to be paid after an employee retires. This descriptive study examines the status of OPEB funding at land grant universities, composition of the benefits provided, and whether modifications are under consideration. Results indicate land grant institutions cover their costs on a pay-as-you-go basis, OPEB liabilities are significantly underfunded, and universities provide comparable types of benefits in their OPEB plan. Revenue shortfalls and current fiscal pressures raise concerns about how they can support the OPEB liabilities. Thus many institutions are evaluating the OPEB cost and the benefits currently provided.
Reporting cash flows is a relatively recent development in college and university financial reporting. An examination of the purported usefulness of cash flow information…
Reporting cash flows is a relatively recent development in college and university financial reporting. An examination of the purported usefulness of cash flow information to the users of college and university financial statements including an examination of the relationship between accrual-based change in net assets and cash provided by operations found private universities have implemented the cash flow reporting requirements with a relatively high level of compliance employing the indirect format for reporting operating cash flows. The principal areas of deficiency were the reporting of split-interest, restricted gift activities and the required disclosures of cash outflows related to interest and taxes. The discussion of the compliance deficiencies and display findings leads to needed disclosure guidance and future research.
Studies the behaviour of men and women in working groups –men through the analogy of the pecking order, i.e. hierarchical, andwomen through that of the crab basket, i.e…
Studies the behaviour of men and women in working groups – men through the analogy of the pecking order, i.e. hierarchical, and women through that of the crab basket, i.e. equality. Discusses the respective advantages and disadvantages of the two groups, which appear to be complementary. Concludes, however, that, despite the apparent complementariness, both sides need to show mutual understanding of their respective codes before they can achieve constructive co‐operation in management.