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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Kwee Keong Choong

The purpose of this paper is to identify the fundamentals of a performance measurement system (PMS) as discussed in the literature for the past 32 years in an attempt to provide a…

3660

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the fundamentals of a performance measurement system (PMS) as discussed in the literature for the past 32 years in an attempt to provide a research agenda (RA) for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a systematic review of the business, public and non-profit sector literature in examining what constitutes the fundamentals of PMS, and how these fundamentals have influenced the use of data (especially on non-financial data), development of measuring methods, measuring attributes and measuring process.

Findings

The paper finds that there are a small number of articles providing that can be considered to have provided substantial discussion of the fundamentals of PMS. While there is no consensus on what constitute the fundamentals of PMS, using content analysis, citation analysis and on the strict criteria of necessary and/or sufficient for the existence of a PMS, this paper managed to characterize the fundamentals into six categories. This paper found that the field of PMS has not change much during the past 30 or more years, and there remains various pragmatic and research gaps that need to be addressed.

Practical implications

The results, outcomes, and analysis of this paper have both practical and academic implications. The gaps and recommendations for future research is consolidated into a RA that provides practitioners to evaluate existing PMS, avoid issues and seek ways to develop a conceptual (theoretical) PMS that is of greater practical significance.

Originality/value

The results of this study contribute toward providing an update of the current state of development and research into PMS; and managed to identify existing practical issues and research gaps of PMS, and provided a RA on which ongoing and future research efforts on this topic can be built upon.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 63 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2013

Kwee Keong Choong

The purpose of this paper is to identify the required factors that can be considered necessary in conceptualizing the features of an efficient and effective performance

9897

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the required factors that can be considered necessary in conceptualizing the features of an efficient and effective performance measurement system (PMS) that is appropriate in the modern organizational setting. The field of PMS is heavily researched and yet certain fundamentals of PMS, in particular the precise meaning and application of the features of PMS: data, measuring attributes consisting of measures, metrics and indicators, and methods of measurement remain unclear.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a systematic approach in reviewing and examining existing PMS and non-PMS articles that focus on the features for measurement from 1990 (January) to 2012 (November). Further, citation analysis was used to support the review as well-cited articles are considered well-read by researchers, and hence they should have sufficient impact in the academic community.

Findings

The outcomes of this review contribute and update existing literature on PMS in three ways: identification of gaps in terms of practical usefulness and academic research; suggestions of solutions in the form of a conceptual framework to improve measurement and performance measurement using the correct features of PMS; and recommendation of a direction for future research with regard to the features of PMS.

Research limitations/implications

Although the proposed concept has many merits, the conceptualized features (as yet) have not reached the stage beyond normative reasoning.

Practical implications

The paper defines a measure, metric and an indicator which relates to the use of accounting and non-accounting data, and suggests some of the non-accounting methods of measurement and performance measurement that can be used generally in various organizations. Using an illustration, this paper suggests appropriate ways to construct and implement the measuring attributes using appropriate measuring methods in a car maker. This paper also warns users to construct and use the features of PMS judiciously as incorrect uses of these attributes can easily be misconstrued, and thus causing incorrect inferences in decision-making.

Originality/value

This is a seminar paper that defines the measuring attributes of PMS for the conceptualization of a workable framework of the features of PMS.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2008

Kwee Keong Choong

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework that can be used to formalise a reporting model for intellectual capital (IC).

7078

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework that can be used to formalise a reporting model for intellectual capital (IC).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes a reporting model with a formal definition and classifications of IC to analyse and report on the IC generated by a firm.

Findings

This paper demonstrates that the field is maturing to one in which it is possible to analyse existing definitions and classifications of IC to construct a formal body of items that can be considered as IC for use in the study and application of IC.

Practical implications

The paper presents a formal reporting model which can be used generally in the analysis of the IC generated from the production process of a firm.

Originality/value

This study examines the characteristics of items that can be considered as IC in order to provide a formal classification system of IC that can be instilled in a reporting system which can be used generally in any organization that involves the use of IC.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Kwee Keong Choong

The purpose of this paper is to identify the fundamentals of a performance measurement system (PMS), in order to ascertain if they satisfy the measurement requirements of business…

1690

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the fundamentals of a performance measurement system (PMS), in order to ascertain if they satisfy the measurement requirements of business process management (BPM) by means of a systematic review of the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses meta‐analysis to systematically review and examine existing BPM and PMS from the business, non‐business and public sectors. A specific methodology using categorization concept was used to select the appropriate articles. In total, 42 relevant articles are selected and later analyzed. A subsequent content analysis of the information obtained is applied to identify the gaps in the current literature.

Findings

The growing interest in PMS has produced an extraordinarily large numbers of papers on the topic. This paper found that, by and large, the PMS as advocated by various authors for over 20 years (since 1990) failed to fulfill the measurement requirements of BPM. This is alarming, considering that past critics of PMS have indicated that the weaknesses of PMS in relation to BPM applied only in isolated or specific situations such as information technology (IT). These findings dispel the notion that a PMS is a prerequisite to the introduction of an effective BP in organizations.

Practical implications

This paper has identified the gaps (weaknesses) of current PMS in meeting the measurement requirements of BPM. This paper proposes a theoretical integrated framework which encompasses a management system, that combines with a measurement system and business processes, and which can be implemented using the popular value‐chain methodology to measure and compare performance within BP organizations.

Originality/value

The results presented contribute towards providing an updated overview of the current state of research into PMS and its relevance to BPM, in order to identify existing research gaps, issues and concerns upon which ongoing and future research efforts on this topic can be built.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

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