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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2018

Blaine J. Branchik and Judy Foster Davis

This paper aims to track how African-American or black male advertising models are viewed by male consumers within the context of dramatic ongoing cultural and legal change. It…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to track how African-American or black male advertising models are viewed by male consumers within the context of dramatic ongoing cultural and legal change. It provides broader implications for other ethnic minorities.

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis of black male advertising images culled from over 60 years of issues of two male-targeted magazines assesses these changes. The analysis contextualizes the imagery in African-American history and general media portrayals periodized into seven historical phases.

Findings

Results indicate that the number of black male advertising representations has exploded in the past 30 years from virtual invisibility to over 20 per cent of all male ad images. Roles have migrated from representations of black ad models as servants and porters to a wide range of images of black men in professional contexts. However, black males, relative to white males, are disproportionately presented in ads as athletic figures and celebrities and rarely depicted in romantic situations.

Research limitations/implications

This research focuses on two popular male-targeted publications, thereby limiting its scope. Relatively few black male images (relative to white male images) are to be found in print advertisements in these publications.

Practical implications

This research assists business practitioners as they create business and marketing strategies to meet the needs of an ever more diverse marketplace.

Social implications

The disproportionately large number of black male depictions as athletes and sports celebrities is indicative of remnant racism and minority stereotyping in American society.

Originality/value

This research builds upon work done by Kassarjian (1969, 1971) on black advertising images. Its originality stems from a specific focus on male models as viewed by male consumers, the addition of historic context and periodization to this history and the updating of past research by almost half a century.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 1997

Judy Foster Davis

This exploratory study examines how promotional effectiveness is determined in small firms and examines decision‐makers attitudes toward promotional performance and measurement…

Abstract

This exploratory study examines how promotional effectiveness is determined in small firms and examines decision‐makers attitudes toward promotional performance and measurement. Although it is commonly believed that small business managers rely upon intuitive methods, this study suggests that most small business managers apply some objective measure of effectiveness to their promotional strategies, typically using multiple methods. Evaluation techniques usually center on measures of financial performance and consumer behavior, with some firms relying on employee input for the assessment of promotional performance. The size of the firm and the gender of the decision‐maker account for significant differences in the frequency and type of evaluation methods applied. The majority of small business managers are somewhat satisfied with how well their promotional efforts perform, however, many experience difficulty in determining the impact of their promotions and could benefit from the development of models and techniques designed specifically for use in small firms.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Judy Foster Davis

The purpose of this paper is to present a biographical review of the career of the late Caroline Robinson Jones (1942‐2001) in order to understand her challenges and contributions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a biographical review of the career of the late Caroline Robinson Jones (1942‐2001) in order to understand her challenges and contributions to the advertising profession. Prior to her death, she was considered the foremost African‐American woman in the advertising business. She was the first black woman to serve as a vice president of a major mainstream advertising agency and also established a respected agency bearing her own name. This paper focuses on Jones' contributions to marketing practice and her experiences as a woman of color in the advertising industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a traditional historical narrative approach largely based on archival materials housed in the Caroline Jones Collection at the Archives Center of the National Museum of American History at the Smithsonian Institution. Relevant secondary literature was also employed to provide appropriate context.

Findings

While the advertising industry has historically been noted for its lack of diversity among its professional ranks, Jones made significant contributions to the industry. Yet, despite her trailblazing accomplishments, findings suggest her efforts were constrained by structural oppression in the industry concerning gender and race.

Originality/value

Scholarly literature reflecting the contributions and experiences of women of color in the advertising business is nearly non‐existent. This paper provides an analysis using sources which are valuable in understanding career opportunities and challenges for women of color in advertising professions.

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Judy Foster Davis

The influence of research on decisions concerning black consumers by mainstream marketers between 1920 and 1970 is to be examined. Market opportunity analysis provides a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The influence of research on decisions concerning black consumers by mainstream marketers between 1920 and 1970 is to be examined. Market opportunity analysis provides a theoretical foundation. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on examination of rare books, archival and proprietary documents housed at the Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising and Marketing History at Duke University; the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture at the New York Public Library; the Museum of Public Relations and relevant literature concerning research on black consumers.

Findings

Mainstream companies were motivated to pursue black consumers on the basis of attractive consumption habits, demographic and psychographic characteristics revealed by informal and formal research available as early as the 1920s. During and after the Second World War, research on black consumers became widely available to corporate executives through the trade press, trade associations, academic literature and internal corporate efforts. White and black scholars, entrepreneurs and marketing professionals were instrumental in collecting, disseminating and interpreting information regarding African-American consumers. Research not only prompted corporate interest in the black consumer market by appealing to profit motives, but also encouraged ground-breaking change in the way that blacks were addressed and portrayed in marketing materials.

Originality/value

This examination expands the literature by introducing information from materials not previously analysed which explains interest in black consumers from marketers' perspectives. Analysis indicates that economic self-interest, more so than social pressures driven by civil rights efforts, prompted mainstream marketers' interest in black consumers. At the same time, socioeconomic gains associated with civil rights advancements transformed African-Americans into an attractive consumer segment widely recognized by mainstream marketers.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

D.G. Brian Jones and Mark Tadajewski

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Abstract

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Jeanie Wills and Krystl Raven

This paper uses archival documents to begin to recover a history of women’s leadership in the advertising industry. In particular, this paper aims to identify the leadership…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper uses archival documents to begin to recover a history of women’s leadership in the advertising industry. In particular, this paper aims to identify the leadership styles of the first five presidents of the New York League of Advertising Women’s (NYLAW) club. Their leadership from 1912 to 1926 set the course for and influenced the culture of the New York League. These five women laid the foundations of a social club that would also contribute to the professionalization of women in advertising, building industry networks for women, forging leadership and mentorship links among women, providing advertising education exclusively for women and, finally, bolstering women’s status in all avenues of advertising. The first five presidents were, of course, different characters, but each exhibited the traits associated with “transformational leaders,” leaders who prepare the “demos” for their own leadership roles. The women’s styles converged with their situational context to give birth to a women’s advertising club that, like most clubs, did charity work and hosted social events, but which was developed by the first five presidents to give women the same kinds of professional opportunities as the advertising men’s clubs provided their membership. The first five presidents of the Advertising League had strong prior professional credibility because of the careers they had constructed for themselves among the men who dominated the advertising field in the first decade of the 20th century. As presidents of the NYLAW, they advocated for better jobs, equal rights at work and better pay for women working in the advertising industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws on women’s advertising archival material from the Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe and Wisconsin Historical Society to argue that the five founding mothers of the NYLAW provided what can best be described as transformational feminist leadership, which resulted in building an effective club for their members and setting it on a trajectory of advocacy and education that would benefit women in the advertising industry for the next several decades. These women did not refer to themselves as “leaders,” they probably would not have considered their work in organizing the New York club an exercise in leadership, nor might they have called themselves feminists or seen their club as a haven for feminist work. However, by using modern leadership theories, the study can gain insight into how these women instantiated feminist ideals through a transformational leadership paradigm. Thus, the historical documents provide insight into the leadership roles and styles of some of the first women working in American advertising in the early parts of the 20th century.

Findings

Archival documents from the women’s advertising clubs can help us to understand women’s leadership practices and to reconstruct a history of women’s leadership in the advertising industry. Eight years before women in America could vote, the first five presidents shared with the club their wealth of collective experience – over two decades worth – as advertising managers, copywriters and space buyers. The first league presidents oversaw the growth of an organization would benefit both women and the advertising industry when they proclaimed that the women’s clubs would “improve the level of taste, ethics and knowledge throughout the communications industry by example, education and dissemination of information” (Dignam, 1952, p. 9). In addition, the club structure gave ad-women a collective voice which emerged through its members’ participation in building the club and through the rallying efforts of transformational leaders.

Social implications

Historically, the advertising industry in the USA has been “pioneered” by male industry leaders such as Claude Hopkins, Albert Lasker and David Ogilvy. However, when the authors look to archival documents, it was found that women have played leadership roles in the industry too. Drawing on historical methodology, this study reconstructs a history of women’s leadership in the advertising and marketing industries.

Originality/value

This paper helps to understand how women participated in leadership roles in the advertising industry, which, in turn, enabled other women to build careers in the industry.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Amanda McGraw and Robert Davis

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of feedback offered by school mentors in three primary and secondary rural schools during pre-service teachers’ (PSTs’…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of feedback offered by school mentors in three primary and secondary rural schools during pre-service teachers’ (PSTs’) professional placements. In the context of discussions about the need for more integrated theory/practice connections for PSTs which are “mutually reinforced by all programme components” (Teacher Education Ministerial Advisory Group, 2014, p. ix), it aims to examine whether certain contextual features of school environments have an impact on the nature of feedback offered to PSTs.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a phenomenological analysis of semi-structured interviews, this paper explores the relationship between certain contextual features of school environments and their impact on the effectiveness of mentor feedback practices.

Findings

It is suggested that teacher mentors are more likely to offer inquiry-oriented feedback informed by well-developed personal theories and values if they teach in schools where feedback processes are promoted as a central part of teachers’ ongoing professional learning. Professional learning experiences, which include classroom observations, peer feedback and a focus on using feedback to enhance students’ learning, extend and deepen teachers’ understandings and beliefs about feedback as well as their repertoire of strategies. Consequently, they are more informed and better able to work with PSTs using inquiry-oriented approaches.

Originality/value

Through an examination of teacher narratives, this paper presents two frameworks for considering the nature of feedback offered to PSTs by their teacher mentors: inquiry-oriented and instructional-oriented feedback. It argues that teacher mentors are better equipped to use inquiry-oriented feedback approaches and build growth-fostering relationships if they are engaged in ongoing professional learning experiences in their schools based on classroom observations and non-judgemental peer feedback.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Georgios I. Zekos

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way…

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Abstract

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way of using the law in specific circumstances, and shows the variations therein. Sums up that arbitration is much the better way to gok as it avoids delays and expenses, plus the vexation/frustration of normal litigation. Concludes that the US and Greek constitutions and common law tradition in England appear to allow involved parties to choose their own judge, who can thus be an arbitrator. Discusses e‐commerce and speculates on this for the future.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 46 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 April 2012

Pierre Barbaroux

This article aims to identify the capabilities supporting the development of collaborative innovation within knowledge‐intensive environments.

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Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to identify the capabilities supporting the development of collaborative innovation within knowledge‐intensive environments.

Design/methodology/approach

Re‐considering the history of the ARPANET project as a vivid example of collaborative innovation, the article presents qualitative research from a historical case.

Findings

Within this framework, the article shows that benefiting from collaboration in innovation entails that the innovative organisation is capable of achieving (at least) the following tasks: to leverage complementarities between internal and external sources of innovation (design capability); to codify, capitalise and disseminate knowledge outcomes (knowledge management capability); and to align product and organisations in a dynamic way (adaptive governance capability).

Research limitations/implications

This contribution is limited by looking at a single case. On the premise that model generalization depends on extensive empirical data, the current article should be considered as preliminary/exploratory research that aims at identifying the capabilities supporting collaborative innovation within knowledge‐intensive environments.

Originality/value

The originality of this article is to look at a historical case to elaborate on a typology of collaborative innovation capabilities.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Juanita Sherwood and Thalia Anthony

Over recent decades, research institutions have prescribed discrete ethics guidelines for human research with Indigenous people in Australia. Such guidelines respond to concerns…

Abstract

Over recent decades, research institutions have prescribed discrete ethics guidelines for human research with Indigenous people in Australia. Such guidelines respond to concerns about unethical and harmful processes in research, including that they entrench colonial relations and structures. This chapter sets out some of the limitations of these well-intentioned guidelines for the decolonisation of research. Namely, their underlying assumption of Indigenous vulnerability and deficit and, consequently, their function to minimise risk. It argues for a strengths-based approach to researching with and by Indigenous communities that recognises community members’ capacity to know what ethical research looks like and their ability to control research. It suggests that this approach provides genuine outcomes for their communities in ways that meet their communities’ needs. This means that communities must be partners in research who can demand reciprocation for their participation and sharing of their knowledge, time and experiences. This argument is not purely normative but supported by examples of Indigenous research models within our fields of health and criminology that are premised on self-determination.

Details

Indigenous Research Ethics: Claiming Research Sovereignty Beyond Deficit and the Colonial Legacy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-390-6

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