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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Enzo Peruffo, Lucia Marchegiani and Francesca Vicentini

This paper aims to analyse the idea that experience acts as an antecedent in divestiture and triggers an organisational learning process that enables the divesting firm to convert…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the idea that experience acts as an antecedent in divestiture and triggers an organisational learning process that enables the divesting firm to convert experience into knowledge, increasing the probability that a firm will undertake subsequent divestitures.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is quantitative. The research project used a case–control design, with a sample consisting of 274 divesting and non-divesting firms. Given the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable, the relations of the research model are tested using logistic regression.

Findings

The likelihood of a divestiture increases when firms have already had past experience of divestitures. Firm performance and firm size act as moderating variables, that is, the learning effects are weaker in firms with better past performance and also in larger firms.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to the literature on organisational learning and divestiture. In particular, the knowledge obtained from previous divestitures is positively related to subsequent ones. The results on firm size and performance as contingency factors make it possible to distinguish between the different learning mechanisms in proactive and reactive divestitures, as well as in larger and smaller firms. Accordingly, a two-level framework of experience and knowledge is proposed.

Practical implications

The results are of interest for practitioners who need a better understanding of the antecedents of their strategic actions in terms of past experience and knowledge. The study also offers insights into the knowledge management practices that fit into the proposed two-level framework of knowledge accumulation.

Originality/value

The originality of the study consists in the strong evidence of learning effects in divestitures that it finds. This study augments a promising line of research on the effect of experience in rare strategic decisions, enriching our understanding of the learning mechanisms associated with complex experiences.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2022

Jennifer L. Kent and Melanie Crane

Transport shapes the health of urban populations. It can support healthy behaviours such as participation in regular physical activity and access to community connection

Abstract

Transport shapes the health of urban populations. It can support healthy behaviours such as participation in regular physical activity and access to community connection. Transport systems can also have major negative impacts on health. For example, through air pollution from fossil fuel-based modes of travel, the risk of injury and death from transport related collisions, and in the way sedentary modes of travelling can contribute to less physically active lifestyles.

This chapter considers the long-term impact of the pandemic on a series of well-researched transport-related health outcomes. It first describes the established connections between transport and health. It then considers the future implications of three potential pandemic-induced shifts: the increased uptake of working from home (WFH); decreased usage of public transport and increased interest in walking and cycling in the local neighbourhood. The impacts of these shifts on the transport-health nexus are then discussed, revealing both positive and negative outcomes. The authors conclude by providing policy recommendations to mitigate possible negative outcomes and strengthen the positive consequences into the future.

Details

Transport and Pandemic Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-344-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

Jurgen Brauer

This article examines the relation between measures of military affairs (such as its budgetary cost and the size of armed forces) and measures of human development (such as…

Abstract

This article examines the relation between measures of military affairs (such as its budgetary cost and the size of armed forces) and measures of human development (such as education, health, freedom, and income). The article's major innovation concerns the separation of data by groups of countries. Across a variety of statistical specifications, I find that the statistical relation between military and human development variables is inconclusive, except for the case of the industrialized nations where a clear negative relation emerges. A discussion of the findings, aimed at the public policy-maker, concludes the article.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Book part
Publication date: 31 October 2022

Sehrish Ilyas, Ghulam Abid and Fouzia Ashfaq

Achieving sustainable development in heart-wrenching milestone in the face of the current pandemic (COVID-19) situation is becoming a key factor for competitiveness of…

Abstract

Achieving sustainable development in heart-wrenching milestone in the face of the current pandemic (COVID-19) situation is becoming a key factor for competitiveness of organizations. Human Resource Development professionals are deemed to be in an ideal position to facilitate the organizational sustainable development by bringing about contextual changes in the workplace and by changing the behavioral patterns of employees. The COVID-19 pandemic has engendered the disruption across societies, raising challenges for the organizations besides other institutions to play their imperative role for a sustainable development pathway. One such way of striving by organizations would be to embark among employees a spark of bringing a change among its employees from being self-centered to societal-oriented by instilling among them the kindle of DSIW (Desire to have Significant Impact through Work). It is the desire of making substantial impact toward society and others' lives, which is evoked under ethical leadership and perceived ethical Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Thus, we have identified the underpinning values of being an ethical leader in wake of contributing toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) toward bringing a societal perspective among employees by infusing the altruistic desire, that is, DSIW among employees. This chapter is broadly divided into two main sections. The first section highlights the contextual settings and the underlying mechanisms that lead to DSIW. The second section draws the attention toward the implication of DSIW for employees in bringing about social change with respect to sustainability, social well-being, as well for the sustainable development of organizations and for positive socioeconomic consequences.

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

J.M. Brauer and W.T. Chen

This paper describes some recent innovations in design, process and materials in printed circuit laminate technology, which can lead to significant paradigm shifts in the design…

Abstract

This paper describes some recent innovations in design, process and materials in printed circuit laminate technology, which can lead to significant paradigm shifts in the design and application of electronic products. The traditional roles for printed circuit cards and boards have been to provide wiring interconnection capacity, and a robust mechanical structure for the more delicate and costly chips and modules. The advent of surface mount technology eliminated the need for plated‐through holes as anchors for pinned components. The proliferation of light, high performance, multifunction electronic products will lead to light weight, small, low profile printed circuit assemblies. Adding a redistribution layer to the traditional card surface allows flip‐chip‐on‐board and MCM‐L packages as a low‐cost alternative to traditional high density MCM packages, particularly in applications where size, shape and weight are as important as density and performance. Concurrent with the deliberate evolution of traditional printed circuit technology, some important new materials and process innovations have brought about a new generation of laminate capabilities that are particularly important for the future high I/O requirements predicted for the second part of this decade.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

Valeria Kiisk and Mait Rungi

Based on the sample of the European information and communications technology (ICT) companies, this paper aims to identify which strategy of knowledge generation is most…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the sample of the European information and communications technology (ICT) companies, this paper aims to identify which strategy of knowledge generation is most beneficial for companies: internal knowledge development or absorption of knowledge external to the company through corporate acquisition or merger.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a longitudinal analysis of European ICT companies was conducted, contrasting internal knowledge creation, in the form of patent accumulation and research and development (R&D) efforts, with external learning through merger-and-acquisition (M&A) activities to uncover the best strategies for performance maximization.

Findings

Results suggest that the two knowledge generation strategies are not complementary and demonstrate only marginal impact on organizational performance. However, intriguing patterns in combining the two became apparent. It was found that patent accumulation improves learning achieved through M&A activities, while also acting as a protection against corporate takeover. At the same time, the internal knowledge generation strategy was found to have a negative impact on financial performance, with external knowledge generation demonstrating somewhat mixed results.

Practical implications

This paper provides practical insights into the patterns of internal and external knowledge generation activities. The two strategies were found not to be complementary, implying that companies must carefully choose their preferences.

Originality/value

This large-scale study tackles the interplay between internal and external knowledge generation strategies, which are mostly studied separately. It reveals new patterns in corporate acquisition and divestment strategies as sources of new knowledge. It also ties the knowledge paradigm to organizational performance.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 October 2020

Rayenda Khresna Brahmana, Hui-Wei You and Xhin-Rong Yong

This study aims to examine the moderating role of chief executive officer (CEO) power on the relationship between divestiture strategy and firm performance by framing the…

1132

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the moderating role of chief executive officer (CEO) power on the relationship between divestiture strategy and firm performance by framing the relationship under the agency and power circulation theories.

Design/methodology/approach

This study focuses on a sample of 319 non-financial public-listed companies in Malaysia from the year 2012–2016 and estimates the model under two-step generalized method of moments panel regression to eliminate the endogeneity issue.

Findings

The results show that divestiture strategy decreased the firm performance. Meanwhile, greater CEO power changed that divestiture effect but still failed to increase the performance. This study also indicates the CEO power strengthens the relationship between firm performance and divestiture.

Research limitations/implications

The overall findings show that the positive moderating role of CEO power on the relationship between divestiture and performance. This research confirmed the agency and power circulation theories by showing that CEO power can make divestiture strategy works. However, the moderating plot tells different. CEO power may strengthen the relationship between divestiture and performance; it fails to boost up the performance in overall. Therefore, this study is about CEO power on the strategic decision and gives a good implication for corporate governance concerning the impact of CEO power on the organization’s alignment process.

Originality/value

This study examines the effect of CEO power on the performance of divestiture strategy implementation by contesting the agency and power circulation theories within an emerging country context.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Amna Salman, Anoop Sattineni, Salman Azhar and Kasia Leousis

The purpose of this study is to conduct a rigorous systematic literature review and present a summary of building systems and technologies that can be used to mitigate the spread…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to conduct a rigorous systematic literature review and present a summary of building systems and technologies that can be used to mitigate the spread of airborne viruses. With the recent outbreak of COVID-19, occupants’ health and indoor air quality (IAQ) have become a critical issue for facility managers to maintain the full functionality of the buildings. An improved understanding of these available systems will help facility managers and building owners to protect the health and safety of building occupants.

Design/methodology/approach

The PRISMA protocol was used for defining the literature search methodology. The concept mapping technique was used for determining the keywords. The keywords were then used to search for relevant articles using the Scopus database and Google Scholar. A thorough bibliometric analysis and qualitative analysis were conducted for the selected publications.

Findings

It was found that sensor technologies, botanical air-filtration systems and artificial intelligence could be used to effectively monitor and improve IAQ. In addition, natural ventilation is one of the low-cost and effective methods of reducing contaminants from the indoor air. Computational fluid dynamic modeling can be used to understand the flow of virus particles within the building through the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. Several changes to the HVAC system are also discussed.

Originality/value

This study contains a diversity of methods from the existing literature that were systematically selected to present the state-of-the-art building systems and technologies that can effectively improve IAQ. The researchers plan to follow up on the findings of this research and will conduct an empirical study to assess its impact on IAQ.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management , vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2012

Jenna Vekkaila, Kirsi Pyhältö, Kai Hakkarainen, Jenni Keskinen and Kirsti Lonka

This article is intended to contribute towards furthering the understanding of researcher development as demonstrated by doctoral students' learning within scholarly communities…

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Abstract

Purpose

This article is intended to contribute towards furthering the understanding of researcher development as demonstrated by doctoral students' learning within scholarly communities. The article does this by reporting the findings of a study that explored the students' key learning experiences during their doctoral journey.

Design/methodology/approach

The 19 participants were natural science doctoral students from a top‐level research community in Finland. The data were collected through interviews that were qualitatively content analysed.

Findings

The participants emphasised the significance of participation, development as a scholar, developing specific research competences as well as learning to balance between doctoral research and other institutional tasks. They situated the key learning experiences in collaborative academic contexts such as research activities, taking courses, and academic meetings. The participants generally perceived their experiences as positive and enhancing.

Originality/value

Significant learning experiences identified by natural science doctoral students themselves are rarely studied. The results of the study reported in this article may be used by doctoral trainers, supervisors and students to create environments that foster students' learning and researcher development through their participation in scholarly communities.

Details

International Journal for Researcher Development, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2048-8696

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 November 2020

Soo Min Shin, Song Soo Lim and Yongsung Cho

This study aimed to estimate the economic benefits of PM2.5 emission abatement by Red Pine, Pinus Koraiensis and Quercus, using a metering model analyzing the amount of PM2.5…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to estimate the economic benefits of PM2.5 emission abatement by Red Pine, Pinus Koraiensis and Quercus, using a metering model analyzing the amount of PM2.5 absorption in Korea.

Design/methodology/approach

To estimate the economic effects of PM2.5 adsorptions by trees, the frequency of hospital visits resulting from respiratory and circulatory diseases was estimated using a Probit model based on the data from National Health and Nutrition Survey.

Findings

The results show that Quercus and Pinus Koraiensis absorb and eliminate the largest amount of PM2.5. Reducing 1 ton of PM2.5 emission through the planting of trees leads to lower incidences of respiratory and circulatory diseases equivalent to the amount of 95 million won. When the trees planted are 2-year-old Red Pine, Pinus Koraiensis and Quercus, the resulting economic benefits of the PM2.5 abatement would amount to 481 million won, 173 million won and 1,027 million won, respectively. If the trees are 80 years old, the economic benefits are estimated to be 73 billion won for Red Pine, 103 billion won for Pinus Koraiensis and 38 billion won for Quercus.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this study is that the weight of PM2.5 adsorbed by each leaf area entirely depended on the experimental results from a prior study and the values are likely to be different from those actually absorbed in natural surroundings. In addition, because of the lack of data from a domestic survey on the surface of leaf area or the reload flow rate of PM2.5, this study referred to data from foreign research. Unfortunately, this specific data may not reflect climatic and terrain characteristics specific to the target country. We used the annual wind speed to calculate the reload flow rate and elimination volume; however, the figures could be more accurate with hourly or daily climate variations. When estimating the health benefits of changes in PM2.5 emissions on respiratory and circulatory diseases, more segmented access to patients' hospital visits and hospital admissions are desirable. Finally, the study focused on the three major tree species of Korea, however, a more detailed study of PM2.5 reduction by various tree types is needed in the future.

Originality/value

This paper quantitatively assessed the amount of PM2.5 adsorption by each of the three tree species. Then, the economic benefits were calculated in terms of how much money would be saved on hospital visits thanks to the reduced PM2.5 levels and lower incidences of respiratory and circulatory system diseases. The net contribution of this study was to prove the trees' function of reducing PM2.5 as it relates to human health. We focused on the most common trees in Korea and compared them to provide new information on the species.

Details

Forestry Economics Review, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-3030

Keywords

1 – 10 of 645