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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Arnold B. Bakker, Mina Westman and I.J. Hetty van Emmerik

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Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2008

I.J. Hetty van Emmerik

The paper aims to follow social exchange theory and group social capital theory, to predict positive relationships between (informal) mentoring and various support…

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2596

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to follow social exchange theory and group social capital theory, to predict positive relationships between (informal) mentoring and various support resources for two types of performance (i.e. perceptions of individual and team performance).

Design/methodology/approach

The associations of individual‐level mentoring and team‐level support with job performance were examined in a cross‐level field study using data from 480 teachers working in 64 interdisciplinary teams.

Findings

Multilevel analyses showed that after controlling for having a mentor, those teachers with more team‐level support resources scored higher on self‐reported job performance and perception of team performance. In line with expectations, the association between mentoring and individual job performance was stronger for teachers scoring high on team‐level support (i.e. support from informal networks and support from team orientation). One basic assumption of the present study was a positive relationship between individual‐level mentoring and job performance. Surprisingly, such a direct relationship between mentoring and job performance was not found: only the moderating relationships mentoring appeared to be associated with job performance.

Research limitations/implications

In the present study, only a global measure of mentoring was used (only yes or no) and this measure did not differentiate between mentoring functions and/or outcomes. However, future research could benefit from including more differentiated measures of mentoring to be able to predict more precisely how various support measures are linked with job performance.

Originality/value

Typical dependent measures in mentoring research include career success, career satisfaction, income, promotions, etc. However, with increasing emphasis on working in teams, there is a need to expand the criterion domain and to include a team level measure. Therefore, a distinction was made between the perception of individual job performance of the respondents and the perception of team performance of the team where the respondent is working in.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 13 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Arnold B. Bakker, Mina Westman and I.J. Hetty van Emmerik

The central aim of this paper is to give an overview of theory and research on the crossover of (work‐related) wellbeing from employees to their partners at home. In…

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3814

Abstract

Purpose

The central aim of this paper is to give an overview of theory and research on the crossover of (work‐related) wellbeing from employees to their partners at home. In addition, it seeks to discuss studies on the crossover of wellbeing from employees to their colleagues in the workplace. It aims to discuss possible moderators of the crossover effect and delineate a research agenda.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of a literature review.

Findings

The review of the literature shows that strain may spillover from work to home, and consequently influence, the wellbeing of one's partner. Additionally, the paper discusses recent studies documenting that the enthusiasm for one's work may cross over to the partner as well. Furthermore, research has shown that employees influence one another in the workplace. Several conditions may facilitate such crossover, including the frequency of interactions, empathy, susceptibility to contagion, and similarity. The paper outlines a research agenda, and indicates what the gaps in the literature are.

Originality/value

The literature review reveals which advancements can be made in crossover theory. One way would be to further validate the spillover‐crossover model. This model postulates that job demands lead to work‐family conflict, which, in turn, leads to conflict with the partner (social undermining). Thus, job strain (or work engagement) first spills over from work to home, and then crosses over to the partner. This interaction sequence consequently influences the partner's wellbeing.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

I.J. Hetty van Emmerik and Maria C.W. Peeters

This study aims to investigate the crossover specificity of team‐level stressors to individual‐level work‐family conflict.

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1960

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the crossover specificity of team‐level stressors to individual‐level work‐family conflict.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of a multilevel analyses with data from 428 employees of a Dutch municipality working in 49 teams.

Findings

The results indicate the expected crossover specificity of different types of work‐family conflicts. After controlling for individual‐level demands there is little evidence that team‐level work demands influence work‐family conflict (WFC) or family‐work conflict (FWC), but team‐level WFC and FWC do influence individual‐level WFC and FWC, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The paper distinguishes two types of WFC, but it did not distinguish between strain‐ and time‐based conflicts. Further, it did not pay attention to individual differences (e.g., susceptibility to distress of team members), although such differences may be important moderators of the crossover process.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first that empirically linked team‐level stressors and WFC to individual‐level WFC and that tested crossover specificity. Findings indicated the associations of team‐level WFC and FWC and focal employees' WFC and FWC respectively, thereby underscoring the importance of crossover specificity.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Nele De Cuyper, Hans De Witte and Hetty Van Emmerik

The purpose of this paper is to answer two questions: How do temporary workers achieve well‐being and optimal functioning? and how is it possible to promote commitment and…

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4912

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to answer two questions: How do temporary workers achieve well‐being and optimal functioning? and how is it possible to promote commitment and productive behaviours among temporary workers?

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of a literature review and synthesis.

Findings

Temporary employment can no longer be seen as exclusively bad or as a signal of labour market segmentation. Instead, mechanisms to promote commitment and productive behaviour that are beneficial for all parties involved can be identified. Temporary employment is a reality that is here to stay and that searches for mechanisms to reconcile the sometimes conflicting perspectives of employees and employers. This new approach is promising but researchers should also account for and create awareness about potential and sometimes less visible drawbacks associated with temporary employment (e.g. social isolation or negative implications for career success).

Originality/value

The paper shows a new approach to temporary work from both the employer and employee perspective.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2009

I.J. Hetty van Emmerik, Arnold B. Bakker and Martin C. Euwema

Departing from the Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) model, the paper examined the relationship between job demands and resources on the one hand, and employees' evaluations of…

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3125

Abstract

Purpose

Departing from the Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) model, the paper examined the relationship between job demands and resources on the one hand, and employees' evaluations of organizational change on the other hand.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were 818 faculty members within six faculties of a Dutch university. Data were analyzed using multilevel analyses with faculty as the grouping variable.

Findings

For the job demands, results show that emotional demands, but not workload, are negatively related to more favorable evaluations of organizational change. Regarding job resources, results show that support from the supervisor, job control, and opportunities for professional development is associated with more favorable evaluations of organizational change. Moreover, job control and support from the supervisor buffered the negative relationship between emotional demands and favorable evaluations of organizational change.

Research limitations/implications

One of the clear implications of this study is that organizations should try to provide their employees with adequate resources together with the ascertaining of jobs with low job demands such that people can fulfill their job without severe adverse working outcomes. If it is impossible to reduce or optimize specific demands, additional job resources should be provided.

Originality/value

The finding that job resources are important in shaping evaluations of organizational change perceptions is consistent with the idea that employees with enough resources will be motivated to do their job and to be motivated to participate in change processes. Employees, who perceive their work environment and their job as highly resourceful, are more likely to anticipate into a pending change effort.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

I.J. Hetty van Emmerik and Karin Sanders

This study examined the relationship between two types of mismatch (i.e. non‐correspondence between preferred and actual number of hours), and affective commitment. It was…

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2767

Abstract

Purpose

This study examined the relationship between two types of mismatch (i.e. non‐correspondence between preferred and actual number of hours), and affective commitment. It was argued that specific groups of employees, i.e. women and part‐time working employees, attach more importance to their working hours and, therefore, are less likely to show affective commitment when they experience a mismatch.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from 222 employees of a Dutch Ministry, hypotheses were tested using regression analyses.

Findings

It was shown that a mismatch of working more hours was differentially related to the affective commitment of employees who wanted to work more and who wanted to work fewer hours. Moreover, gender and full‐time status were found to moderate the negative relationship between a mismatch and the affective commitment of employees who wants to work less.

Research limitations/implications

The focus is on affective commitment; however, it is possible that other types of commitment are also associated with perceptions of psychological contract breach.

Practical implications

Tailored HRM is needed: assisting employees with a mismatch wanting to work fewer hours can be achieved by allowing them more flexibility in their working schedules. Employees with a mismatch of wanting to work more hours can be assisted with additional support, e.g. shopping services.

Originality/value

HRM practices can be tailored to different preferences: the value of this paper is the examination of different types of mismatch for different group of employees.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 20 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2008

I.J. Hetty Van Emmerik and Martin C. Euwema

This study seeks to examine the association of employee's evaluation of organizational restructuring with the destruction of old social capital, development of new social…

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2545

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to examine the association of employee's evaluation of organizational restructuring with the destruction of old social capital, development of new social capital, and the mediating role of perceived organizational support (POS).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were used from 419 teachers of Dutch secondary schools using hierarchical regression analyses.

Findings

Results show that more positive employees' evaluation of the organizational restructuring are less likely to remain relying on old social capital resources, and score higher on development of new social capital. Moreover, POS mediated the association of employee's evaluation of the organizational restructuring with old and new social capital.

Research limitations/implications

Future research, utilizing longitudinal designs and experiments that better lend it to causal inferences, are needed to examine relationships between organizational restructuring, POS, and social capital.

Originality/value

The results of this study provide a first step toward outlining the importance of organizational restructuring for social capital theory and how employees cope with transition to different work units. In organizations, having a shared language and narratives may allow team members to more easily integrate knowledge and provide better support to one another. Moreover, a common perspective and understanding among team members may allow employees members to anticipate the behavior of other members, thus promoting organizational efficiency and effectiveness.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

I.J. Hetty van Emmerik

This study focused on the relationship between mentoring constellations and intrinsic career success. Hierarchical regression analyses on the data of 416 female and 594…

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2795

Abstract

This study focused on the relationship between mentoring constellations and intrinsic career success. Hierarchical regression analyses on the data of 416 female and 594 male university members showed that mentoring was positively associated with intrinsic career success (i.e., career satisfaction and intrinsic job satisfaction. Several characteristics of developmental networking appeared to be associated with intrinsic career success, e.g. size of the advice network, range, emotional intensity, frequency of the contacts, and years acquainted. Moreover, some moderating effects of gender on the relationship between mentoring constellations and intrinsic career success were found, e.g. for size of the advice network, emotional intensity, and stability of the relationship. Implications of results and directions for future research are discussed.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 9 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2008

Maria C.W. Peeters and Hetty van Emmerik

The article's aim is to introduce the papers contained in this special issue of the Journal of Managerial Psychology.

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4014

Abstract

Purpose

The article's aim is to introduce the papers contained in this special issue of the Journal of Managerial Psychology.

Design/methodology/approach

Specifically the present article starts by discussing the meaning of the factor age and by considering who is actually termed an older worker. Next, the consequences of cognitive, physical and mental changes during the aging process for work and organizations are being discussed. Before presenting a general introduction to the research contributions that are included in this special issue, a plea is made for a more positive approach to older employees. The article presents a literature review, a discussion of the main topics and suggestions for future pathways for research and HRM.

Findings

It is indisputable that some cognitive, physical and mental changes take place while people grow older. However, what is less certain is how these changes impede on employees' well‐being. Recently, scholars seem to agree that the picture is not as negative as one used to think.

Research limitations/implications

The implications are: use different conceptualizations of age; focus on the process of aging instead of on age as a factor; shift the focus from managing threats to creating opportunities.

Practical implications

It is in both employers' and employees' interest to make the best use of employees of all ages and to manage employees in accordance with individual attributes and capacities rather than by making assumptions based on age.

Originality/value

The article frames the issues and sets the stage for a more positive approach towards older workers.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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