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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Heny Kurniawati, Philippe Van Cauwenberge and Heidi Vander Bauwhede

This paper aims to investigate whether the choice for a Big4-affiliated local audit firm affects the capital structure of listed companies in Indonesia, a fast-growing emerging…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether the choice for a Big4-affiliated local audit firm affects the capital structure of listed companies in Indonesia, a fast-growing emerging country that is characterized by high information asymmetry and low litigation risk. A unique characteristic of the Indonesian audit environment is that Big4 auditors can only enter the market indirectly through affiliation with a local audit firm.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of Indonesian listed companies between 2008 and 2015 is used to investigate this relation using ordinary least squares (OLS). To address the concern that the choice for Big4-affiliated auditors might reflect client characteristics, the authors also perform OLS on a matched sample, using both propensity-score and entropy-balance matching.

Findings

Across all three samples, the authors document that companies audited by a Big4-affiliated local audit firm display lower debt ratios. The authors find no such effect for affiliation with second-tier audit firms. Surprisingly, they find that the negative effect of Big4 affiliation is increasing in client size.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides evidence of the consequences of hiring Big4 auditors on the perceived information asymmetry by financial markets under extreme conditions: in an environment characterized by low litigation risk and where Big4 auditors can operate only indirectly through affiliation.

Practical implications

The results of this study are of interest to policymakers, managers and financial stakeholders in emerging countries where external financing is important yet difficult to obtain because of severe information asymmetry. Hiring a Big4 auditor, even only through affiliation, might reduce perceived information asymmetry and increase the access to external equity financing.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence of the effect of Big4 auditors on their clients’ capital structure when they can operate only indirectly through affiliation with a local auditor.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 October 2023

Bachriah Fatwa Dhini, Abba Suganda Girsang, Unggul Utan Sufandi and Heny Kurniawati

The authors constructed an automatic essay scoring (AES) model in a discussion forum where the result was compared with scores given by human evaluators. This research proposes…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors constructed an automatic essay scoring (AES) model in a discussion forum where the result was compared with scores given by human evaluators. This research proposes essay scoring, which is conducted through two parameters, semantic and keyword similarities, using a SentenceTransformers pre-trained model that can construct the highest vector embedding. Combining these models is used to optimize the model with increasing accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

The development of the model in the study is divided into seven stages: (1) data collection, (2) pre-processing data, (3) selected pre-trained SentenceTransformers model, (4) semantic similarity (sentence pair), (5) keyword similarity, (6) calculate final score and (7) evaluating model.

Findings

The multilingual paraphrase-multilingual-MiniLM-L12-v2 and distilbert-base-multilingual-cased-v1 models got the highest scores from comparisons of 11 pre-trained multilingual models of SentenceTransformers with Indonesian data (Dhini and Girsang, 2023). Both multilingual models were adopted in this study. A combination of two parameters is obtained by comparing the response of the keyword extraction responses with the rubric keywords. Based on the experimental results, proposing a combination can increase the evaluation results by 0.2.

Originality/value

This study uses discussion forum data from the general biology course in online learning at the open university for the 2020.2 and 2021.2 semesters. Forum discussion ratings are still manual. In this survey, the authors created a model that automatically calculates the value of discussion forums, which are essays based on the lecturer's answers moreover rubrics.

Details

Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1858-3431

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Gatot Soepriyanto, Sienny Tjokroaminoto and Arfian Erma Zudana

This study aims to examine the association between annual report readability and accounting irregularities in Indonesia. Using 967 firm-year observations over the 2014–2017…

1033

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the association between annual report readability and accounting irregularities in Indonesia. Using 967 firm-year observations over the 2014–2017 period, this paper unable to find evidence that annual report readability is associated with accounting irregularities. The results are robust after using alternate measurements of accounting irregularities proxies and readability indexes. This paper also finds that the corporate governance mechanism and foreign shareholder structure did not moderate the association between annual report readability and accounting irregularities.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses an archival method with cross-sectional regression of 967 firm-year observations over the 2014–2017 period to investigate an association between annual report readability and accounting irregularities in an emerging market setting. To check the robustness of the results, this paper conducts a battery of robustness tests.

Findings

This paper finds evidence that annual report readability is not associated with accounting irregularities in Indonesia. The results are robust after using alternate measurements of accounting irregularities proxies and readability indexes. This paper also finds that the corporate governance mechanism and foreign shareholder structure did not moderate the association between annual report readability and accounting irregularities. This implies that the readability of annual reports does not have the ability to predict the likelihood of accounting irregularities in Indonesia. It is possible that firms with accounting irregularities will be inclined to voice simpler stories which can counteract the tendency of lies to be linguistically more complex. Indeed, according to the Education First English Proficiency Index, Indonesia is categorized at a low proficiency level. Furthermore, this paper also discovers that the average readability of the management discussion and analysis (MD&A) of Indonesian public listed firms is at an ideal score by having a Fog Index of 13.32. The findings provide valuable insights for stakeholders in using annual reports for their decision-making, especially in an emerging market setting and non-English speaking countries.

Research limitations/implications

It is important to interpret the findings in the context of the limitations of the readability index the authors used. It is argued that Fog Index, Flesch-Kincaid and Flesch Reading Ease have their own limitations as considered inadequate to be used in the context of business and accounting narratives that are adult-oriented and specialist in nature (Jones and Shoemaker, 1994; Loughran and McDonald, 2014). Another caveat relates to the use of proxies for accounting irregularities. The M-Score and F-Score have some limitations in which, among others, were determined without considering the normal level of accruals or period where manipulations were absent (Ball, 2013).

Practical implications

One reason underlying the result is that Indonesian firms, in general, do not consider the complexity of the annual report, particularly MD&A disclosures, as a tool to mask financial reporting irregularities. It is also possible that firms with accounting irregularities will incline to voice simpler stories because it is difficult to be untruthful (Lo et al., 2017). Indeed, according to Education First English Proficiency Index, Indonesia was categorized in low proficiency level and ranked 61st out of 100 countries being surveyed (Education First, 2019). As policymakers, locally and globally, are calling for more simplified reports including a plain English approach, the study can be insightful to their deliberations. It suggests that policymakers need to consider a country’s English proficiency, writing skills, regulatory environment and corporate policy on shaping the complexity and narrative of a firm’s communications.

Originality/value

The study contributes to a scarcity of research that investigates English-written annual reports in non-English speaking countries (Jeanjean et al., 2015; Lundholm et al., 2014). As such, the study findings provide insights related to MD&A in an under-researched area and contribute to improving MD&A not only in Indonesia but also in neighbor countries that share similar social, political and economic characteristics. Also, this study is important for foreign institutions or individuals investing on Indonesian-listed firms. According to Candra (2016), approximately 60% of companies listed in the Indonesia stock exchange are owned by foreign individuals or institutions. They rely greatly on the English texts of annual reports to understand the companies’ financial performance. Moreover, La Porta et al. (2002) asserted that firms with a majority of foreign shareholders (dominantly owned by foreign investors) are more likely to face information asymmetry, primarily due to geographical factors and language barriers.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

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