The aim of this survey was to study nutrition education in local authority schools in the Tayside Region, in order to assess what adequate, practical knowledge of nutrition was being imparted to which pupils, and by which departments.
Hazel Kyrk’s recognised contributions include a shift in analytic focus from production to consumption, pioneering work to measure household production as part of family income…
Hazel Kyrk’s recognised contributions include a shift in analytic focus from production to consumption, pioneering work to measure household production as part of family income, empirical studies of family behaviour, and contributions to policy. But her account of ‘wise’ consumption and its intersection with ‘high’ living standards is not well understood. The three aims of this chapter are to explain ‘wise’ consumption across Kyrk’s three major books, to consider its role in Kyrk’s empirical studies, and to explain why it fell into oblivion. Tackling what Wesley Mitchell described as the ‘most baffling of difficulties’, Kyrk explained what constitutes a family’s ‘good’ in a manner that was critical of mere emulation. Her 1923 book required that wise consumption include new and personal elements. Her 1929/1933 book detailed five qualitative criteria (balance between interests, full and varied experiences, originality, rational sources of satisfaction, and the use of scientific information). But her 1953 book weakened this normative language, reflecting Margaret Reid’s view that Kyrk’s account was too demanding. Although Kyrk felt wise consumption avoided paternalism, her peers disagreed (Hoyt, 1938/1945; Reid, 1938/1945). We close with some problems with Kyrk’s account and a brief consideration of its continuing relevance.
In the years following the publication of A Theory of Consumption (1923), Hazel Kyrk’s book became the flagship of the field that would later be known as the economics of…
In the years following the publication of A Theory of Consumption (1923), Hazel Kyrk’s book became the flagship of the field that would later be known as the economics of consumption. It stimulated theoretical and empirical work on consumption. Some of the existing literature on Kyrk (e.g., Kiss & Beller, 2000; Le Tollec, 2020; Tadajewski, 2013) depicted her theory as the starting point of the economics of consumption. Nevertheless, how and why it emerged the way it did remain largely unexplored. This chapter examines Kyrk’s intellectual background, which, we argue, can be traced back to two main movements in the United States: the home economics and the institutionalist. Both movements conveyed specific endeavors as responses to the US material and social transformations that occurred at the turn of the 20th century, notably the perceived changing role of consumption and that of women in US society. On the one hand, Kyrk pursued first-generation home economists’ efforts to make sense of and put into action the shifting of women’s role from domestic producer to consumer. On the other hand, she reinterpreted Veblen’s (1899) account of consumption in order to reveal its operational value for a normative agenda focused on “wise” and “rational” consumption. This chapter studies how Kyrk carried on first-generation home economists’ progressive agenda and how she adapted Veblen’s fin-de-siècle critical account of consumption to the context of the household goods developed in 1900–1920. Our account of Kyrk’s intellectual roots offers a novel narrative to better understand the role of gender and epistemological questions in her theory.
Hazel Kyrk’s contribution is the most advanced formulation of the economics of consumption as a social phenomenon, an approach to the analysis of consumption that, originated from…
Hazel Kyrk’s contribution is the most advanced formulation of the economics of consumption as a social phenomenon, an approach to the analysis of consumption that, originated from Veblen’s theory, was developed in the US in the early 20th century. This approach was part of a wider stream of empirical analyses of consumption expenditure that had begun more than a century earlier.
Along with elements that can be traced back to the neoclassical tradition, in Keynes’ analysis of consumption, we find original elements. The dependence of consumption expenditure on the level of income, which is essential for asserting the principle of effective demand, can also be found in a long tradition of empirical studies. In qualifying this relationship, Keynes uses theoretical elements echoing key insights of the economics of consumption as a social phenomenon. There is no documentary evidence that Kyrk or the economics of the social relevance of consumption came to Keynes’ attention. It is possible, however, to develop reasonable speculative considerations to argue a link between Keynes’ elaboration and both the empirical literature on the determinants of consumption and the economics of consumption as a social phenomenon.
Hazel Kyrk, one of the first women economists at the Economic Department of the University of Chicago and author of A Theory of Consumption (1923), conducted groundbreaking…
Hazel Kyrk, one of the first women economists at the Economic Department of the University of Chicago and author of A Theory of Consumption (1923), conducted groundbreaking research for the Bureau of Home Economics of the US Department of Agriculture and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Kyrk made a considerable contribution to the development of standards for a “decent living,” the Consumer Price Index, and the conceptualization of what would later turn into the definition of the poverty line. This chapter evaluates Kyrk’s use of eugenic notions of gender and race that were widely used in Kyrk’s day. This chapter shows that eugenic reasoning impacts Kyrk’s theoretical work only superficially but does structure her research on consumption standards through her focus on the white middle-class family as the unit of analysis for consumer behavior. This chapter also makes clear that the American Institutionalist approach to consumer behavior, rather than marginalized and side-tracked due to a lack of theoretical progress, was relegated to the margins of economics science together with the research of women economists into Home Economics departments and policy research at government institutions.
Although malls have been a topic of interest to marketing researchers for at least 35 years, the attraction between malls and Generation Y consumers has received little interest…
Although malls have been a topic of interest to marketing researchers for at least 35 years, the attraction between malls and Generation Y consumers has received little interest from marketing academics. This study focuses on the attitudes that the older segment of Generation Y consumers (19‐25) have toward a mall, and on their consumption motivation. Key findings include that Generation Y consumers are more likely to be objectively rather than socially motivated to consume. The findings also suggest that objective motivations to consume predict an individual consumer's perception of a shopping mall's ambience, layout, and his or her involvement in the shopping process. Social motivations to consume predict perceptions of a mall's ambience, design, variety, and excitement, as well as the consumer's desire to stay and intent to return to the mall. Managerial implications include using objective information, such as price‐oriented promotions, when trying to attract older Generation Y consumers.
WE have now to regard Indexing from quite another standpoint. Hitherto we have been assuming it to be undertaken from a co‐operative point of view, as in the case of Poole's Index and also in that of the Review of Reviews. In special work, the greater the magnitude of the task, as in the instance of Science as a whole, and any large divisions of Science, the more likely is co‐operative effort to be required, but speaking generally special indexes are largely the result of individual effort. It is here that that discrepancy in execution, allusion to which has been made earlier, becomes so manifest. It is my principal object to show how these contradictory methods, the natural result of several minds working on no fixed or settled plan, may be avoided. No space, therefore, will be wasted on detailing these inconsistencies, for the reader's and student's interests will be better served by the more positive method of pointing out how to index on a fixed and settled system. As in the previous section practical illustrations will appear later on to demonstrate this.
The purpose of this paper is to examine factors affecting the use of forage index insurance. Forage is a difficult crop to insure, and index insurance may be well suited for…
The purpose of this paper is to examine factors affecting the use of forage index insurance. Forage is a difficult crop to insure, and index insurance may be well suited for forage insurance and has been implemented in several countries, including Canada, the USA and France. Despite being a promising risk management tool, forage index insurance participation rates in Canada, and other countries are low relative to crop insurance participation rates for grain and oilseed producers.
A survey was conducted with 87 beef and cattle producers from Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. A probit regression model was used, and a number of variables were included to examine the use of forage index insurance.
In total, 6 of 11 variables in the model are found to be statistically significant in explaining forage producers’ use of forage index insurance. Results suggest that producers who maintain lower feed reserves are more likely to purchase forage index insurance. Also, producers with higher levels of knowledge of crop insurance and a more positive attitude toward forage insurance are more likely to use forage index insurance. Furthermore, producers are more likely to use forage index insurance if they perceive drought and weather risk as being of greater importance, and if they are younger. The importance of the variable forage index insurance premium price was statistically insignificant. This could be due to the effect of subsidization, reducing the importance of price for the decision to purchase. Similarly, the use of other subsidized risk management policies, including a whole-farm margin policy (e.g. the government program and AgriStability), did not reduce forage index insurance use. A possible explanation for this is that the subsidization of the policies may make it profitable to purchase both, despite the overlapping coverage.
These results may be useful for policy makers interested in increasing forage index insurance participation rates, as forage index insurance participation rates have historically been low relative to grain and oilseed producers.
This study is believed to be one of the first studies regarding the use of forage index insurance by forage producers. Producers can be exposed to catastrophic risks such as drought or other extreme weather events, and forage index insurance may be an effective means to manage these risks. Index insurance determines payments using an index that is correlated to producers’ actual yields. A downside of this method is basis risk, which is the mismatch between the insured index and the producer’s actual yield. Research has focused on basis risk and developing improved methods to reduce basis risk. However, less research has investigated the other important factors that may contribute to forage index insurance use. Producers may have a different risk management environment regarding forage production compared to other farm activities, and these differences have largely not been examined.