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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2021

Heather C. Melton

Sexual assault continues to be a major criminal problem. Sexual assault kits (SAK) are one way to preserve evidence to use to pursue justice in sexual assault cases. In recent…

Abstract

Purpose

Sexual assault continues to be a major criminal problem. Sexual assault kits (SAK) are one way to preserve evidence to use to pursue justice in sexual assault cases. In recent years, it has become clear that very often these SAKs are never sent to the crime lab to be processed. In an effort to deal with these unsubmitted kits and to research their impact, the Bureau of Justice Assistance funded various grants, known as the Sexual Assault Kit Initiative (SAKI) nationwide to create multidisciplinary teams to both improve the process and response to sexual assault and to provide research on this issue. This paper aims to explore a process created by one of the multidisciplinary teams in one SAKI site – the case review. Ultimately, the goal is to explore how different participants in the case review process perceive and experience the case review and provide implications of these findings.

Design/methodology/approach

Using surveys of case review participants, participant observation and key stakeholder interviews findings indicate that case reviews are beneficial in terms of training, collaboration and overall response to sexual assault.

Findings

Using all methods, the participants of case reviews found them beneficial. Both new information was gleaned from almost every case review and decisions on particular cases were potentially changed, particularly among the key stakeholders with the ability to impact decisions in sexual assault cases – law enforcement and prosecutors. Issues were raised through the case review process that might not have been without this process. Thus, case reviews have the potential to affect policy and practice and improve future reporting, investigations and prosecutions of sexual assault cases.

Practical implications

Multidisciplinary responses to sexual assault cases, specifically the case review process, are beneficial. Issues for training, opportunities for collaboration and general issues for a particular jurisdiction are all potentially raised during a case review. The case reviews need to be organized, preparation work completed and properly facilitated to be effective. Participants in the case review process themselves perceive case reviews to be beneficial.

Originality/value

This paper presents findings from one of the SAKI sites. A specific process, the case review process, that was developed and implemented at this site was explored. The findings on this process have implications for both practice and policy.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

K. Akinade, R. Burgess, M. Campbell, S. Carver, L. Sanderson, R. Wade and C. Melton

The increased interest in the electronics industry to search for alternatives to lead‐containing solders is evidenced by the number of recently published articles on lead‐free…

Abstract

The increased interest in the electronics industry to search for alternatives to lead‐containing solders is evidenced by the number of recently published articles on lead‐free solders in this journal and other journals. At the latest Surface Mount International conference, several papers were presented on lead‐free solder alloys, conductive adhesives and organic preservatives, all in search of replacements for lead‐containing finishes. The efforts to find a replacement for tin/lead are in response to possible legislation banning lead or possible taxation on the use of lead. In an attempt to reduce the use of lead in this company's assembly operation, five lead‐free solder pastes and four corresponding flux vehicles (for A, B, C and E pastes) were evaluated. All of the flux vehicles passed the standard industry tests except for two flux vehicles (pastes B and C) that failed the copper mirror test. An assembly trial of the lead‐free pastes was carried out by building liquid crystal display panels with minimal process modification. Printability, process compatibility and solder joint reliability were assessed. This paper describes the preliminary results of the authors' investigation.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

C. Melton

A quantitative dynamic solder wettability measurement was used to evaluate the effects of reflow processing on the wettability parameters associated with two non‐lead bearing…

Abstract

A quantitative dynamic solder wettability measurement was used to evaluate the effects of reflow processing on the wettability parameters associated with two non‐lead bearing solders, 96.5% Sn/3.5% Ag and 58% Bi/42% Sn. An experimental design approach employing full factorial experiments was formulated to investigate the solder wetting dependence of the reflow parameters: atmosphere, peak reflow temperature, time above liquidus and metallisation. Solder wettability was determined with respect to the final degree of spread and the extent of solder wetting onto the lands of surface mount components. The solder alloy composition of 96.5% Sn/3.5% Ag was found to exhibit better wetting characteristics than the 58% Bi/42% Sn alloy. This wetting behaviour was enhanced under the reflow conditions of a nitrogen atmosphere and the use of a gold metallisation. The wetting of the conventional 63% Sn/37% Pb solder alloy was improved over the comparatively processed 58% Bi/42% Sn alloy. However, the 63% Sn/37% Pb solder alloy displayed a greater sensitivity to reflow atmosphere than the 96.5% Sn/3.5% Ag alloy, which generally exhibited better wetting characteristics than the Sn/Pb alloy.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

C. Melton and H. Fuerhaupter

The use of lead in electronics assembly operations has come under scrutiny due to health and environmentalconcerns associated with lead exposure. Lead is one of the most useful…

443

Abstract

The use of lead in electronics assembly operations has come under scrutiny due to health and environmental concerns associated with lead exposure. Lead is one of the most useful metals in modern industry; however, lead has the dubious distinction of being one of the most toxic of metals. Increasingly restrictive government regulations on the use of lead are hastening the search for feasible alternatives to tin‐lead solder alloys. From an electronics assembly standpoint, there is a desire to replace lead bearing HASL (hot air solder levelling) coatings with a metallic, lead‐free alternative. To answer these needs, Motorola have developed a lead‐free, immersion plating technology for the surface finish of PCB printed circuit board bond pads. The Motorola development work has focused on the metallurgical system of tin‐bismuth, which is a simple eutectic system similar to that of tin‐lead, featuring a minimal number of phases and a wide operating window.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

P. Savolainen and J. Kivilahti

Polyester connector strips were joined to polyimide substrates with anisotropic electrically conductive adhesives. Copper conductors as well as Au/Ni‐coated copper conductors were…

Abstract

Polyester connector strips were joined to polyimide substrates with anisotropic electrically conductive adhesives. Copper conductors as well as Au/Ni‐coated copper conductors were used on flexible circuits. The adhesives were composite materials consisting of heat curing, one‐component epoxy resin and powdered ternary solder alloys: tin‐bismuth‐zinc, tin‐indium‐zinc and tin‐zinc‐aluminium. An adhesive filled with eutectic tin‐bismuth alloy powder was used as reference. The effect of bonding parameters (e.g., temperature, dwell time and pressure) on contact resistance values was evaluated. The contact resistance values were measured for evaluating the reliability of adhesive joints during a 60°C/95%RH test. Furthermore, the joint microstructures were examined with optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that with the copper conductors the initial contact resistance values were lower than with the Au/Ni‐coated copper conductors. The most reliable joints were produced with low melting filler alloys (with respect to bonding temperature) on bare copper metallisation. The most likely reason for failure of the Au/Ni‐coated circuits was strong oxidation of locally exposed nickel in the presence of moisture.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2011

Rhonda Vonshay Sharpe

This chapter examines the types of institutions successful at replicating the diversity of the full-time undergraduate population in the diversity of the STEM-discipline degrees…

Abstract

This chapter examines the types of institutions successful at replicating the diversity of the full-time undergraduate population in the diversity of the STEM-discipline degrees awarded. The sample is limited to full-time undergraduate students enrolled at or who are graduates from nonprofit private and public institutions. Relative to their share of the full-time undergraduate population and U.S. population, Asians and whites are overrepresented and blacks and Hispanics were underrepresented in the STEM – discipline bachelor's degree population. Private doctorate and public bachelor's and public master's comprehensive degrees–granting institutions were more successful than their counterparts at replicating the diversity of the full-time undergraduate population in the diversity of the STEM-discipline degrees awarded. Historically Black College and Universities (HBCUs) were the most successful at replicating this diversity. These findings were consistent over the time period analyzed.

Details

Beyond Stock Stories and Folktales: African Americans' Paths to STEM Fields
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-168-8

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1998

Daniel R. Gamota and Cindy M. Melton

Encapsulant materials for flip‐chip‐on‐board (FCOB) were developed to address issues that have been observed during assembly of consumer electronic products on a high volume…

Abstract

Encapsulant materials for flip‐chip‐on‐board (FCOB) were developed to address issues that have been observed during assembly of consumer electronic products on a high volume manufacturing FCOB/SMT line. The viscosity, surface tension, and filler particle sizes of several encapsulants were studied in an attempt to correlate these properties to their recorded underfill times and to observe their flow properties under the gap. Materials characterization studies were performed to determine their glass transition temperatures (Tg), tensile elastic and loss moduli (E′ and E′′), coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), and apparent strengths of adhesion (ASA). In addition, reliability tests were conducted, and several promising materials were identified. The ASA of the encapsulant to the die passivation and the printed circuit board (PCB) is critical to the robustness of the assembly. Studies were conducted to observe the ASA as a function of FCOB assembly conditioning prior to underfilling and the degradation of the ASA as a function of humidity exposure. The ASA of the FCOB encapsulants was highest when the assembly was “baked‐out” prior to underfilling. Conditioning the assemblies for 24 hours at 23°C/85 per cent RH, to simulate the “worse case” factory environment, reduced the ASA. The ASA was also reduced when the “baked‐out” assemblies were placed in the 85°C/85 per cent RH chamber after underfilling. Although the ASA was decreased when the boards were not “baked‐out”, the reliability performance was not affected during air to air temperature cycling (AATC). A new class of low stress encapsulant materials systems were developed to reduce the stress state of the backside of the die. Studies showed that for specific materials compositions, the stress was proportional to the glass transition temperature of the encapsulant. In addition, it was observed that the stress state was a function of humidity, temperature, and time. FCOB assemblies were built with several low stress encapsulants and placed in reliability testing and they performed as well as assemblies underfilled with the qualified encapsulant.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

This report, presented as the keynote paper at Surface Mount International, is the culmination of joint efforts to assess the use of lead in electronics assembly. The study, which…

Abstract

This report, presented as the keynote paper at Surface Mount International, is the culmination of joint efforts to assess the use of lead in electronics assembly. The study, which is presented in two parts, involved the collaboration of the following participants: B. R. Allenby and J. P. Ciccarelli, AT&T, Basking Ridge, New Jersey; I. Artaki, J. R. Fisher and D. Schoenthaler, AT&T Bell Laboratories, ERC, Princeton, New Jersey; T. A. Carroll, Hughes, El Segundo, California; D. W. Dahringer, Y. Degani, R. S. Freund, T. E. Graedel, A. M. Lyons and J. T. Plewes, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey; C. Gherman and H. Solomon, GE Aerospace, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; C. Melton, Motorola Inc., Schaumburg, Illinois; G. C. Munie, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Indian Hill, Naperville, Illinois; and N. Socolowski, Alpha Metals, Jersey City, New Jersey. Part 1 was published in the previous issue of Circuit World, Vol. 19, No. 2.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

This report, presented as the keynote paper at Surface Mount International, is the culmination of joint efforts to assess the use of lead in electronics assembly. The study, which…

Abstract

This report, presented as the keynote paper at Surface Mount International, is the culmination of joint efforts to assess the use of lead in electronics assembly. The study, which will be presented in two parts, involved the collaboration of the following participants: B. R. Allenby and J. P. Ciccarelli, AT&T, Basking Ridge, New Jersey; I. Artaki, J. R. Fisher and D. Schoenthaler, AT&T Bell Laboratories, ERC, Princeton, New Jersey; T. A. Carroll, Hughes, El Segundo, California; D. W. Dahringer, Y. Degani, R. S. Freund, T. E. Graedel, A. M. Lyons and J. T. Plewes, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey; C. Gherman and H. Solomon, GE Aerospace, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; C. Melton, Motorola Inc., Schaumburg, Illinois; G. C. Munie, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Indian Hill, Naperville, Illinois; and N. Socolowski, Alpha Metals, Jersey City, New Jersey.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1989

The Croxton + Garry (C+G) Melton Whiting Plant is the largest calcium carbonate production unit within the Croxton + Garry Group, as well as one of the biggest U.K. producer of…

Abstract

The Croxton + Garry (C+G) Melton Whiting Plant is the largest calcium carbonate production unit within the Croxton + Garry Group, as well as one of the biggest U.K. producer of this type of mineral. It is the second plant to achieve registration to BS 5750: Part 2:1987 and ISO 9002 — 1987, the internationally recognised standards for quality assurance and control.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 18 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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