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Article
Publication date: 6 October 2021

Ayman Issa and Mohammad A.A. Zaid

Drawing on the multi-theoretical perspective, the primary purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the inextricably entwined nexus between board gender…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the multi-theoretical perspective, the primary purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the inextricably entwined nexus between board gender diversity and corporate environmental performance within cross-country context.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple regression analysis on a cross-country panel data analysis was used. Further, the authors applied static panel data estimator ordinary least squares (OLS) as a baseline model with different proxies of gender diversity. In addition, to control for the potential endogeneity problem and providing robust findings, the authors run two-stage least squares (2SLS) and lagged independent variables.

Findings

The findings clearly unveiled that corporate environmental performance is positively and significantly affected by the level of gender diversity on board. This inextricable and intimate nexus is vastly attributed to the argument that female directors show greater concerns for eco-friendly activities.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide useful and fruitful insights for regulatory parties and policymakers to mandate gender quota in electing boardroom members to ameliorate corporate environmental performance.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, most of the prior studies have not yet provided a multi-theoretical analysis of the effect of board gender diversity on environmental performance. Thereby, this study handled this contemporary gap and went beyond the narrow perspectives by diving deep with cross-country analysis.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2021

Ayman Issa, Mohammad A.A. Zaid, Jalal Rajeh Hanaysha and Ammar Ali Gull

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of board diversity (e.g. education, gender, nationality and royal family members) on voluntary corporate social…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of board diversity (e.g. education, gender, nationality and royal family members) on voluntary corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure for a sample of banks listed in the Arabian Gulf Council countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the Global Reporting Initiative guidelines to construct the CSR disclosure index. The empirical analysis is based on the data of banks listed in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries over the period 2011–2019. To tackle the potential issue of endogeneity, the authors apply the system generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation approach to investigate the relationship between board diversity and CSR disclosure index.

Findings

The findings of the analysis show that there is a significant relationship between board diversity and the level of voluntary CSR disclosure. Specifically, the authors find that diversity captured by the education level, nationality and the presence of royal family members on board is positively associated with the level of voluntary CSR disclosure while diversity captured by the gender of board members is negatively associated with the level of voluntary CSR disclosure.

Practical implications

The regulators, policymakers, stakeholders and the board of directors become aware of the diversity mechanisms that must be used to promote CSR practices in the banking sector of Arabian Gulf countries.

Originality/value

The authors extend the existing literature by providing empirical evidence on the association between board diversity and voluntary CSR disclosure practices of banks operating in the Arabian Gulf countries. This study also highlights that board gender diversity may have a different impact on voluntary CSR disclosure between developed countries and developing countries. This paper also provides preliminary evidence on the importance of education level, the presence of foreign and royal directors on board to influence CSR practices of banks operating in the Arabian Gulf countries.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Article
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Ayman Issa, Hesham Yousef, Ahmed Bakry, Jalal Rajeh Hanaysha and Ahmad Sahyouni

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of board diversity (e.g. nationality, gender and educational level) on financial performance for a sample of banks…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of board diversity (e.g. nationality, gender and educational level) on financial performance for a sample of banks listed in 11 countries in the Middle East and North Africa region.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the system generalized method of moments estimation approach on the data of banks listed in the MENA countries over the period 2011–2018 to investigate the relationship between board diversity and financial performance. Also, the findings are supported by additional robustness tests, including ordinary least squares, fixed and random effect techniques.

Findings

The empirical results show that there is a significant relationship between board diversity and financial performance in banks. Specifically, the findings demonstrate that board diversity related to nationality has a significant positive impact on bank performance. The findings also show an insignificant association between gender and educational level diversity and bank performance. The robustness analysis supports the findings of the baseline model.

Practical implications

The study provides multi-country evidence on the importance of board diversity in the MENA region and it sheds light on possible tracks for future reforms aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of the board’s functions.

Originality/value

This paper extends the existing literature by providing empirical evidence on the association between board diversity and financial performance of banks in the MENA countries. This paper also provides preliminary evidence on the importance of board diversity to influence financial performance.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Mohammad A.A Zaid, Man Wang, Sara T.F. Abuhijleh, Ayman Issa, Mohammed W.A. Saleh and Farman Ali

Motivated by the agency theory, this study aims to empirically examine the nexus between board attributes and a firm’s financing decisions of non-financial listed firms in…

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1808

Abstract

Purpose

Motivated by the agency theory, this study aims to empirically examine the nexus between board attributes and a firm’s financing decisions of non-financial listed firms in Palestine and how the previous relationship is moderated and shaped by the level of gender diversity.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple regression analysis on a panel data was used. Further, we applied three different approaches of static panel data “pooled OLS, fixed effect and random effect.” Fixed-effects estimator was selected as the optimal and most appropriate model. In addition, to control for the potential endogeneity problem and to profoundly analyze the study data, the authors perform the one-step system generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator. Dynamic panel GMM specification was superior in generating robust findings.

Findings

The findings clearly unveil that all explanatory variables in the study model have a significant influence on the firm’s financing decisions. Moreover, the results report that the impact of board size and board independence are more positive under conditions of a high level of gender diversity, whereas the influence of CEO duality on the firm’s leverage level turned from negative to positive. In a nutshell, gender diversity moderates the effect of board structure on a firm’s financing decisions.

Research limitations/implications

This study was restricted to one institutional context (Palestine); therefore, the results reflect the attributes of the Palestinian business environment. In this vein, it is possible to generate different findings in other countries, particularly in developed markets.

Practical implications

The findings of this study can draw responsible parties and policymakers’ attention in developing countries to introduce and contextualize new mechanisms that can lead to better monitoring process and help firms in attracting better resources and establishing an optimal capital structure. For instance, entities should mandate a minimum quota for the proportion of women incorporation in boardrooms.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical evidence on the moderating role of gender diversity on the effect of board structure on firm’s financing decisions, something that was predominantly neglected by the earlier studies and has not yet examined by ancestors. Thereby, to protrude nuanced understanding of this novel and unprecedented idea, this study thoroughly bridges this research gap and contributes practically and theoretically to the existing corporate governance–capital structure literature.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Ayman Issa and Antonio Alleyne

This paper aims to determine the extent of anti-corruption information disclosure in the sustainability reports originating from Gulf countries.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine the extent of anti-corruption information disclosure in the sustainability reports originating from Gulf countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilizes a deeply rooted content analysis technique of corporate sustainability reporting, covering 66 Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) firms during 2014.

Findings

Strengthened by the application of the institutional theory, insight into the results points to a state of limited maturity regarding the disclosure of anti-corruption procedures in the region. More specifically, the results highlight the compliance in the reporting of conduct code, while reporting information on whistleblowing was significantly less in comparison. Firms in Qatar and the UAE ultimately release better informed reports, inclusive of detailed information on internal anti-corruption practices.

Originality/value

The aim of this study is to determine the extent of sustainability reporting in GCC companies under coercive isomorphism concept, with a special interest in the disclosure of anti-corruption practices. Ultimately, addressing the following questions: To what extent the GCC companies disclose their anti-corruption practices in the sustainability reports? What areas of anti-corruption disclosure the GCC is more concerned in their sustainability reports? To what extent do external forces under coercive isomorphism explain the extent of anti-corruption?

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2019

Ayman Issa and Hong-Xing Fang

This study aims to examine the impact of board gender diversity on the level of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure in the Arab Gulf states. Also, this…

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2498

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of board gender diversity on the level of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure in the Arab Gulf states. Also, this research further aims to explore whether the impact of board gender diversity varies across the Arab Gulf states.

Design/methodology/approach

Ordinary least squares regression is used in this study to test the impact of board gender diversity on the level of CSR disclosure. Manual content analysis is used to evaluate the extent of CSR disclosure in annual reports, stand-alone CSR reports, sustainability reports and website sections to examine the relationship between the extent of CSR reporting and board gender diversity. This study uses the global reporting initiative (GRI) fourth version reporting guidelines to design and define the classifications of CSR reporting checklist.

Findings

The findings show that there is a statistically significant relationship between the number of female directors and the level of CSR disclosure. The results show that board gender diversity is positively associated with the level of CSR reporting in two countries, namely, Bahrain and Kuwait. Also, the findings reveal that there is a weak positive relationship between the presence of women on the boards and CSR reporting index in Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the UAE.

Originality/value

This study attempts to fill the gap in the literature, in that no similar study covers the Arab Gulf countries as one economic unit. The study is unique in that it focuses on oil-rich countries. This study is, to the best of this researcher’s knowledge, the first to explore the impact of women’s boards on the extent of CSR reporting, as well as investigating the possible variation of board gender diversity impact on the extent of CSR reporting in the Arabian Gulf region.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Ammar Ali Gull, Muhammad Atif, Ayman Issa, Muhammad Usman and Muhammad Abubakkar Siddique

This paper aims to examine whether CEO succession with gender change (male to female) affects audit fees in the Chinese setting. In addition, this study examines whether…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether CEO succession with gender change (male to female) affects audit fees in the Chinese setting. In addition, this study examines whether the relationship exists in both types of ownership, i.e. non-state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and SOEs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data from all A-share non-financial firms listed on both the Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) and Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SZSE) for the period 2009 to 2015. To draw inferences, this study uses pooled ordinary least squares regression as a baseline technique. This study performs sub-sample analyzes for robustness. To account for endogeneity, this study uses three techniques including firm fixed-effects regression, the two-step Heckman model and the system generalized method of moments (GMM).

Findings

This study documents a significantly negative relationship between CEO succession with gender change and audit fees. However, the negative effect of CEO succession on audit fees is more pronounced in non-SOEs than SOEs. This study also finds, in additional analyzes, a strong negative effect of female CEO succession on audit fees in sub-sample of large, high-risk, high-performance and firms audited by non-big auditors. The main finding is robust across three endogeneity techniques.

Practical implications

The findings add to the ongoing debate about the underrepresentation of women in key executive positions such as CEO. The results suggest that CEO succession from male to female has a favorable effect on the quality of internal monitoring mechanisms (due to the superior monitoring skills of women) and enhances the quality of financial reporting. The study has practical implications for regulatory bodies and corporate decision-makers; this study encourages them to look into considering women in the executive succession framework.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by exploring the effect of CEO succession with gender change (male to female) on audit fees in the context of China and the existence of this relationship in non-SOEs and SOEs.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Faisal A. Abu Rub and Ayman A. Issa

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new approach to investigate complex processes, such as software development processes, using business process modeling.

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1772

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new approach to investigate complex processes, such as software development processes, using business process modeling.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents an investigation into the use of role activity diagramming (RAD) to model complex processes in the software industry sector, with reference to the process of TestWarehouse as a case study.

Findings

Systematic extension and quantitative analysis to RAD models led to the discovery of process bottlenecks, identification of cross functional boundary problems, and focused discussion about automation of processes.

Research limitations/implications

Further work is required to validate and evaluate the proposed approach using several cases with different application domains and thus generalize the adopted approach.

Practical implications

A new approach has been used successfully to understand and analyze business processes. The tools and techniques that are used to perform the approach are not complicated and do not need much specialist expertise, so the approach is not only oriented toward specialists but also toward organizations' managers and staff.

Originality/value

New techniques have been developed by using process modelling to deepen the understanding and analyzing of complex organizational processes. This research implements a practical investigation which uses a case study to validate the new techniques.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Martin Evans, Peter Farrell, Ayman Mashali and Wael Zewein

The purpose of this paper is to investigate critical success factors (CSFs) that enhance integration between building information modelling (BIM) and lean construction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate critical success factors (CSFs) that enhance integration between building information modelling (BIM) and lean construction (LC) practices on construction mega-projects. BIM and LC have gained momentum in the past decade.

Design/methodology/approach

The Delphi survey technique was used to gauge opinions of a panel of 16 experts through a two-round Delphi questionnaire survey. Panel responses were scrutinised using inferential and descriptive statistical techniques.

Findings

In total, 30 CSFs were identified in the literature. The top ranked factor out of 30 that supports LeanBIM synergy was “collaboration in design, construction works and engineering management”. Other top rated CSFs were centric on people, data and technology elements. The research findings are important for project stakeholders, organisations, contractors, engineers and local authorities who implement LC and BIM synergies in construction mega-projects.

Originality/value

The research findings are important for project stakeholders, organisations, contractors, engineers and local authorities who implement LC and BIM synergies in construction mega-projects. The research recommends further hands-on training to increase the integration of BIM and LC practices in the architecture, engineering and construction industry and to enrich the extant body of knowledge in construction of mega-projects.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Ayman E. Haddad, Wafaa M. Sbeiti and Amer Qasim

The main aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the most influential economic changes and accounting legislation affecting financial reporting and disclosure…

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1345

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the most influential economic changes and accounting legislation affecting financial reporting and disclosure practices in Jordan. It also provides an overview of disclosure studies conducted in Jordan covering the year(s) between 1986 and 2014 to investigate whether there is an improvement in disclosure practice in Jordan. This paper also investigates the most influential firm characteristics affecting disclosure practices in Jordan found in prior disclosure studies that were conducted in Jordan between 1986 and 2014. The paper also addresses the disclosure items required in Corporate Governance Codes that exist for listed shareholding companies, banks and insurance companies. Finally, the paper discusses the quality of accounting education in Jordan, as prior studies noted its impact on accounting practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a review of prior disclosure studies conducted in Jordan between 1986 and 2014, this study compared the results of disclosure studies before and after 1998. In 1997, Jordan, as a result of economic changes, issued the Temporary Securities Law and its Directives of Disclosure, which came into effect in 1998. The law is considered as the turning point in the improvement of disclosure practice in Jordan. A trend line of disclosure practice is also used to investigate whether disclosure practice is improved after the issuance of this law. A descriptive analysis is also used to examine the factors affecting disclosure practice in Jordan.

Findings

Based on a review of prior disclosure studies, it was concluded that disclosure practices have improved overtime. It was also observed that that firm size as a factor has always affected the level of disclosure in Jordan and is followed by external auditing, while liquidity is found to have the least effect. It was concluded that economic changes, agreement with international organizations like the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO), new regulations and financial market reforms have improved disclosure practice in Jordan. It was also found that there is a need for further studies in disclosure practice that are not sufficiently covered in Jordan.

Originality/value

The study is based on a review of disclosure studies conducted in Jordan between 1986 and 2014. We investigate whether mandatory, voluntary, corporate social and internet disclosure practice improved over the last three decades in Jordan. This study is the first to provide evidence on the improvement of disclosure practices based on a review of disclosure studies in Jordan. The paper is expected to be a reference for disclosure studies in developing countries, Jordan in particular, as it summarized and criticized the weaknesses on disclosure practice and accounting legislations in Jordan.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 59 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

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