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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Long Zhang, Ali Kara, John E. Spillan and Alma Mintu-Wimsatt

The role of marketing as a business function is rapidly changing in China. Consequently, their views on marketing orientation – whether it is accepted, rejected, modified…

Abstract

Purpose

The role of marketing as a business function is rapidly changing in China. Consequently, their views on marketing orientation – whether it is accepted, rejected, modified or reframed – have been seriously impacted. This paper aims to report on the results of a survey among Chinese small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) managers and their perceptions of the market-orientation philosophy. In particular, emphasis was placed on three dimensions of market orientation: intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination and responsiveness. The effect of market orientation on business performance was also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected data from 214 managers from SMEs. These businesses were located in the cities of Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen. The commonly used market orientation (MARKOR) measure was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Consistent with the extant literature, the findings provided empirical support for the three dimensions of market orientation among Chinese SME. The authors also found that a positive relationship existed between Chinese SME market orientation and firm performance.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides major insights into the market orientation measurement and practices of SME in China. From a measurement perspective, the empirical support for MARKOR across a non-Western context is noteworthy. From a practitioner perspective, the implications relating to understanding Chinese SME and how these companies can best market their products and services to their respective markets are critical. Some of the limitations of our study relates to the sample size, convenience sampling and geographic concentration of the respondents.

Originality/value

This study addresses the gaps in the literature by exploring market orientation in non-large scale businesses as well as the adaptation of the concept in a non-Western cultural setting. The findings extend the conceptualization and application of market orientation to Chinese SME.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Suleyman Murat Yildiz and Ali Kara

Although the existing internal marketing (IM) scales include various scale items to measure employee motivation, they fall short of incorporating the needs and…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the existing internal marketing (IM) scales include various scale items to measure employee motivation, they fall short of incorporating the needs and expectations of service sector employees. Hence, the purpose of this study is to present a practical instrument designed to measure the IM construct in the higher education sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in this empirical study. A qualitative method was used to develop the scale items to measure the IM construct and a quantitative method was used to test the scale developed in the higher education sector. The study sample included n = 240 academic staff from a large university. Both exploratory (EFA) and the confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were used to confirm the dimensionality of the IM scale developed.

Findings

The study results showed that all items in the measurement scale were loaded on a single dimension that represents the IM construct in the higher education sector. The psychometric properties of the developed scale (IM-11) met and exceeded the expected criteria cited in the literature.

Research limitations/implications

The IM-11 scale presented in this study offers a practical tool for higher education administrators in their efforts to measure the needs and expectations of their employees. Moreover, this knowledge should provide a framework for the administration to develop strategies for employee motivation, job satisfaction and performance and assume additional responsibilities in their efforts to serving their external customers better. Sample size, cultural factors and the complex nature of university academic staff limit one’s ability to generalize these results to broader populations.

Originality/value

In line with the information provided in the literature on IM, this study developed a simple and practical instrument to measure the IM construct for an academic unit within a university.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2018

Mehmet Turan and Ali Kara

Online social media has become an important marketing communication tool for entrepreneurs and their customers because of its ability to simplify various constraints in…

Abstract

Purpose

Online social media has become an important marketing communication tool for entrepreneurs and their customers because of its ability to simplify various constraints in the communication process. Online social media allows entrepreneurs to access customers, suppliers, partners and other necessary resources that were not easily reachable before at significantly lower costs. Therefore, the current study aims to examine entrepreneurs’ motivations, expected benefits and intentions to use online social media in an emerging market.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a quantitative approach to investigate the entrepreneurs’ online social media use behaviors. Data are collected from n = 368 entrepreneurial organizations using structured questionnaires and personal interviews. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) along with structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypothesized relationships in the conceptual model.

Findings

Results from the data analyses show that entrepreneurs’ perceptions about efforts needed, performance expectations and various social influences helped explain a significant proportion of the variation in entrepreneurs’ intentions to use online social media. All hypotheses tested in the study were confirmed.

Research limitations/implications

Efforts need to be spent on developing positive entrepreneurial attitudes toward online social media usage. As social media becomes more integrated with personal and business life, entrepreneurs need to use social networking sites to build relationships with existing customers or to reach new customers. A larger and more representative sample would have improved generalizability of the findings about entrepreneurial use of online social media. Future research studies should consider using additional independent measures to validate the study results.

Practical implications

This study contributes to the entrepreneurial literature by providing empirical evidence for the link between entrepreneurs’ perceptions and attitudes about social media and their intentions to use it in an emerging market. Additionally, entrepreneurs need to expend more effort in understanding and effectively using social media and should develop positive attitudes toward online social media. Entrepreneurs’ feelings, perceptions and efforts need to be nurtured through support from online social media providers, educational institutions and local chapters of business organizations (i.e. SBA, Chamber of Commerce) alike.

Originality/value

This research is one of the few studies that has attempted to examine the effects of various antecedent factors in the context of entrepreneurs’ intentions to use online social media for business purposes in an emerging market. This study contributes to the entrepreneurial literature by providing empirical evidence for the link between entrepreneurs’ perceptions and attitudes about social media and their intentions to use it in an emerging market. Additionally, this study contributes to our understanding about the role of social influences, effort and performance expectancies on the formation of entrepreneurial intentions to use social media.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2018

John E. Spillan, Alma Mintu-Wimsatt and Ali Kara

The purpose of this paper is to assess the robustness of the three (Bowersox and Daugherty, 1987) dimensions (process, market and information strategies) of logistics…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the robustness of the three (Bowersox and Daugherty, 1987) dimensions (process, market and information strategies) of logistics strategy in a Chinese manufacturing environment. In addition, the impact of the three dimensions, coordination and customer service on the organizational competitiveness of Chinese manufacturers firms is explored.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted an online survey hosted at Sojump.com and disseminated to members of a manufacturing trade association. A total of 513 completed responses were generated. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation model (SEM) were used to test the hypothesized relationships in the conceptual model.

Findings

The findings suggest that the three dimensions of the Bowersox and Daugherty (1987) were relevant to the Chinese manufacturing environment. The authors also found that the overall logistics strategy measured by the three dimensions as well as coordination and customer service effectiveness positively influenced Chinese manufacturing firms’ competiveness.

Research limitations/implications

Further research into logistics and supply chain management may benefit from expanding the understanding to include antecedents and moderating factors (e.g. competition, market turbulence and differences in business environment) into the model. Future studies on cross-cultural logistics/supply chain management logistics may benefit from the application of strategy-structure-process (SSP) approaches similar to those discussed in this manuscript.

Practical implications

This study attempted to provide a robust conceptual framework to increase the understanding of the role of logistics/supply chain management strategy and provide insights to managers seeking to improve firm competitiveness. An essential implication of the conceptual model presented in this manuscript is the dynamics of logistics strategy as a competitive tool.

Social implications

The findings provide an understanding of how business and manufacturing are operating in various locations in China with opportunities for employment and socio-economic gain among the population of these geographic locations. Having employment can provide a better quality of life and assist the community in developing its opportunities for other groups.

Originality/value

As the current Chinese administration seeks to achieve its goal of generating higher value-added production through its “Made in China 2025” initiative, the results the authors represent are quite timely and insightful. Examining manufacturing firms’ logistics strategies (i.e., OLS), coordination and customer service could provide state planners (SOEs) and/or privately owned Chinese manufacturers insights on how to move closer towards their aforementioned goal and achieve global competitiveness.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1997

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/09596119510146823. When citing…

Abstract

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/09596119510146823. When citing the article, please cite: Ali Kara, Erdener Kaynak, Orsay Kucukemiroglu, (1995), “Marketing strategies for fast-food restaurants: a customer view”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 7 Iss: 4, pp. 16 - 22.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 99 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2012

Süleyman Murat Yildiz and Ali Kara

The research presented in this study replicates and extends the QSport-10 scale proposed by Rial, Varela, Rial and Real in their 2010 study, by incorporating the Programme…

Abstract

The research presented in this study replicates and extends the QSport-10 scale proposed by Rial, Varela, Rial and Real in their 2010 study, by incorporating the Programme dimension into the original measurement of service quality in Physical Activity and Sports Centres (PSCs). The objective of this research is to examine the dimensionality of the QSport-10 scale and extend it to capture the additional Programme service quality dimension. Study results confirmed the dimensionality of the service quality measurement offered by the QSport-10 scale and presented strong empirical support for the existence of Programme, Installations and Staff dimensions. Programme dimension was considered the most important factor for the largest consumer segment in the study.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

Erdener Kaynak, Ali Kara and Syed Akmal Hyder

International alliances are becoming an increasingly important and recognized means of conducting business. Once viewed primarily as a strategy to enter foreign markets…

Abstract

International alliances are becoming an increasingly important and recognized means of conducting business. Once viewed primarily as a strategy to enter foreign markets, alliances have become a very effective way for established businesses to accelerate technological development, enhance productivity and lower investment risks. In many ways joint ventures offer the most attractive form of trade alliance and a significant portion of the international joint ventures are in the service sector. Although, services are generally viewed by academicians and practitioners differently than products, this apparent difference has been neglected in the study of joint ventures formation and operations. Since the basic conditions and scope for services and products differ, one can expect that joint venture partners' interest and management strategies for service joint venture will also differ. Thus, the purpose of this study is to discuss and identify major research issues in studying service joint ventures. Some research propositions in regard to the service joint ventures are developed. Furthermore, future research avenues in international service joint venture operations are delineated.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

Erdener Kaynak, Orsay Kucukemiroglu and Ali Kara

In recent years, we have witnessed a tremendous movement of the manufacturing firms around the globe. In response to this trend large advertising agencies from the triad…

Abstract

In recent years, we have witnessed a tremendous movement of the manufacturing firms around the globe. In response to this trend large advertising agencies from the triad countries are following on the footsteps of their manufacturing clients. In view of these globalization efforts, the advertising industry is experiencing growth in many countries of the world, as evidenced by the increased number of advertising agencies and total billings. In particular, certain issues have come forward for investigation. For instance, how to manage and produce the advertising strategies? Should the domestic agency or in‐house advertising department do it? What are the duties and responsibilities of advertising agencies? The present study examines current structural characteristics of advertising agencies in an advanced developing country , Turkey, and critically compares the role, function, and structure of the advertising agency and client relationships in that country.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 6 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2013

Erdener Kaynak, Ali Kara, Clement S.F. Chow and Ali Riza Apil

The empirical, cross-national study reported here examines how time orientations influence attitudes toward advertising in two emerging Asian economies with very different…

Abstract

Purpose

The empirical, cross-national study reported here examines how time orientations influence attitudes toward advertising in two emerging Asian economies with very different background and time orientation, namely Macau and Georgia. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaire was used as an instrument to conduct a survey for the study. The questionnaire design was adapted from Rojas-Méndez et al. study. The two samples were collected through either a drop-off-and-pick-up method or street-intercept interview.

Findings

Georgians are found to be more past oriented and had had more suspicious feelings about advertising whereas Macau data indicated more future-orientation was the most dominant dimensions and they had better dispositions towards advertising.

Practical implications

With the findings, managers of different time orientation markets can consider one more factor to strike for the optimal balance in placing their promotional budget between pull and push strategy, and between above-the-line and below-the-line activities when executing the pull strategy.

Social implications

Government of different time orientation can be more informed of the effectiveness of using advertising to communicate with its citizens in its culture.

Originality/value

Studies on how time orientation relates to attitudes toward advertising are few and such relationship appears to be never compared within two Asian countries with very different background and time orientation.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2009

Suleyman M. Yildiz and Ali Kara

HEdPERF (Higher Education PERFormance) is one of the most recently developed scales in the literature to measure service quality in higher education. However, HEdPERF is…

Abstract

Purpose

HEdPERF (Higher Education PERFormance) is one of the most recently developed scales in the literature to measure service quality in higher education. However, HEdPERF is designed to measure service quality at a macro level (university level) and may be considered as a more generic measurement instrument. In higher education, new scales with a much narrower focus may need to be developed for micro levels within a university because of the unique nature of different academic units. The purpose of this paper is to develop an instrument for measuring service quality in the School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, PESPERF (namely Physical Education and Sports Sciences PERFormance).

Design/methodology/approach

A 30‐item questionnaire on service quality in higher education was developed and tested for unidimensionality, reliability and validity using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. In total, 320 physical education and sports sciences students participated in the study in a classroom setting.

Findings

Study results indicate that three dimensions (academic aspects, empathy, and access) capture the determinants of service quality in the School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences (PESS).

Research limitations/implications

Sample size, cultural factors and the complex nature of university customers limits one's ability to generalize these results to broader populations.

Practical implications

Through the use of service quality dimensions presented in this study, PESS administrators can successfully measure and monitor service quality perceptions in their institutions. Having identified the areas of service quality improvement priorities, administrators can allocate appropriate resources to encourage continuous service quality improvements.

Originality/value

This paper uses existing literature on service quality and develops an instrument that provides insights into measuring service quality for a specific academic unit within a university.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

Keywords

1 – 10 of 192