Globalization and the Environment of China: Volume 14

Table of contents

(17 chapters)
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Abstract

This paper investigates how relative environmental regulation influences the flow of foreign direct investment (FDI), and thereby assesses the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH). In this field, conflicting results exist, partly due to the mere consideration of absolute environmental regulation or the inadequate consideration of endogeneity. Concerning these, we study China’s inward FDI from 26 developed countries and 12 developing countries over 1996–2009, and collect four different environmental regulation indicators at relative values of CO2, SO2, PM10, and an environmental regulation index. Using an instrumental variable approach, we find strong PHH evidence no matter for the subsample of FDI from developed countries or the one from developing countries. Moreover, we show how such results can be masked if failing to consider the endogeneity.

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Abstract

Accompany with the development of economy, the environment becomes deteriorating, especially in developing countries. Many studies found that foreign direct investment (FDI) with the effect of technology spillover would be one of the best ways to solve the environmental problem. By using the model of trade theory distinguishing between environmental and productive technology and separately analyzing the technology spillover effect of these two technologies on reducing environmental pollution in host countries, we find that the pollution problem could be worse if more intensive pollution industrial structure is induced by the environmental technology development. Naturally, this did not mean restraining the development of technology, but rather emphasizing the importance of the regulation and the industrial structure.

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Abstract

We compare environmental impacts associated with incoming foreign direct investment versus domestic capital in China. We use aggregate data on Chinese provinces’ economic and pollution indicators to explore the effects of the financial origin of fixed capital. Our simultaneous models consider three prime channels through which these effects work: economic scale, sectoral composition, and pollution intensity. Results show that emissions associated with foreign financed capital are lower than with domestically financed capital for some but not all of the considered types of pollution.

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Abstract

The central debate on pollution havens concerns whether the level of environmental regulation in developing countries influences foreign investment location decisions. Most empirical studies are based on aggregate data, while micro-level evidence is relatively lacking in the literature. To fill this research gap, this paper tests for the existence of intracountry pollution havens in China by estimating the determinants of foreign investment flows based on a large firm-level panel dataset. Evidence from this study supports the existence of pollution havens within China in certain industries. However, the sensitivity of foreign investment to environmental regulation varies significantly across industries with different pollution characteristics. Furthermore, when the impact of government subsidies on foreign investment is accounted for, the results show that subsidies can compensate for pollution treatment costs in provinces with stricter environmental regulation.

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Abstract

Accompanying the development of economy, multinational enterprises (MNEs), as a role of promoting economic development, may also lead to environmental pollution of host countries. China has become one of the most significant countries in terms of introducing foreign direct investment (FDI), along with which the pollution problem has become serious. Whether the MNEs affect the environment and whether the MNEs in China perform worse than local enterprises attracts more attention. To understand more about it, we creatively build a model of vertical product differentiation, and the result indicates that the environmental performance of MNEs is better than that of local enterprises.

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Abstract

This paper tests the pollution haven hypothesis by examining the relationship between environmental regulation and foreign investment with consideration of the role of corporate social responsibility, which has so far been neglected. Using multinationals’ investment data from China, our results in general support the pollution haven hypothesis that less stringent environmental regulation is more attractive for multinationals to invest in China, but high social responsibility can counteract attractiveness of weak environmental regulation.

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The issue of environmental regulation and productivity has received increasing attention among academics, but little research has focused on Chinese firms despite the serious state of pollution in China. This study aimed to fill that gap. Analyzing a sample of firms from 12 Chinese cities, we found that environmental regulation could improve firm productivity, but the responses to environmental regulation differed across industry sectors, firm sizes, and locations. In this paper, we discuss the implications of these responses toward the environmental policy in China.

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Abstract

The huge flow of foreign direct investment (FDI) in recent decades has prompted concern among policy-makers and researchers regarding its impact on the environment, as well as its contribution to China’s economic growth. In this study, by combining FDI and trade pollution theory, we establish a model to evaluate the impact of FDI on pollution, which facilitates testing the “pollution haven” hypothesis. Our results indicate that FDI is concentrated in pollution-intense industries. Moreover, it is necessary to undertake further research on FDI pollution with new data after environmental regulation.

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Abstract

After three decades of reform and opening up, China’s economy has experienced huge changes. Against the background of economic globalization, foreign direct investment (FDI) plays an important role in China’s economy. China has become one of the world’s largest FDI inflow countries, which has had an important impact on its economic development. FDI has preferred the industrial sector, which also has serious environmental pollution. This study will consider vertical and horizontal FDI location choice theory and conduct theoretical analysis concerning the FDI location choice within the industrial sectors, as well as empirical analysis to test the distribution of FDI in pollution-intense industries. Furthermore, the “Catalog of Industries for Foreign Investment” is one of China’s important industrial policies to guide foreign investment. Since being implemented in 1995, it has made five adjustments. The analysis of the distribution of FDI in the polluting industries and the impact of the change process will provide advice instructive for the government to amend the catalog.

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Abstract

The critical issue in the debate over the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH) is whether the location choice of international investment is influenced by the stringency of environmental regulation. So far previous empirical studies focused on the outward investment from developed countries, while little work has been done on the issue from developing countries. To fill the gap, this paper selects data from China enterprises, using a Logit estimation to determine whether there is a pollution haven effect in the location choice of developing countries’ outward investment. Our results show that Chinese enterprises are attracted by countries with lax environmental regulations; resource-intensive enterprises from China are more sensitive to the stringency of regulation than are technology-intensive enterprises. We contribute to the literature in two ways. First, we provide new evidence in support of the PHH by analyzing investment from developing countries. Further, we show that differences exist in the FDI behavior between resource-intensive and technology-intensive enterprises. Based on this finding, we explain why some previous studies have not found robust evidence of the PHH.

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DOI
10.1108/S1574-8715201414
Publication date
2014-11-13
Book series
Frontiers of Economics and Globalization
Editors
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-1-78441-179-4
Book series ISSN
1574-8715