Clan and Tribal Perspectives on Social, Economic and Environmental Sustainability

Cover of Clan and Tribal Perspectives on Social, Economic and Environmental Sustainability

Indigenous Stories from Around the Globe

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(15 chapters)

Prelims

Pages i-xxi
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Theme 1 Civilisations and Sustainability

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Abstract

This chapter draws upon the ongoing gaps and injustices in Western water policy and law, exploring its paucity in recognition of Indigenous Water rights. Exacerbated by National Water legislation and ongoing colonial racism, notions of ‘ownership’ of water resources that are licenced through the Crown represent a site where a paradigm shift is needed to dismiss the myth of aqua nullius and secure Aboriginal Water rights (Marshall, 2017). The Gunditjmara success in obtaining United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage listing of the Budj Bim eel traps and the Yarra River (Wilip-gin Birrarung murron) Protection Act (2017) are two examples that illustrate recognition of Aboriginal connections to water, but at the same time reveal weaknesses in Australian water policy. Sustainable Indigenous culture requires legal, social and cultural recognition and enactment of Aboriginal Water rights.

Abstract

Indigenous Australians are often referred to as ‘the First Peoples’ of Australia, and the inclusion of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander flags in being recognised as official national flags in 1995 by the Keating Federal Government, alongside the Australian flag, embues First Peoples with national recognition. The national discussion and consultation to reform Australia's Constitution has failed to progress a proposal to enshrine Australia's First Peoples recognition in the preamble of the constitution. The Australian Federal Government also dismissed the Uluru Statement from the Heart, which calls for a national Indigenous voice to parliament and the concept of a Makarrata, to facilitate the truth-telling about Australia's violent history. This great southern continent experiences long periods of drought, intense fires and periodic intense flooding across Australia. However, Australian society has barely engaged with First Peoples and their unique knowledge of this land, whether traditional or revitalised, including their exemplary sustainable management through ‘Caring for Country’. This chapter examines the benefits of Indigenous people's knowledge exercised through their laws, customs, practices and polity, and analyses the significant impact resulting from generations of settler Australians ignoring Indigenous ontology and knowledge.

Theme 2 Entrepreneurship and Innovation

Abstract

In the last decade, Indigenous enterprises and entrepreneurs have played an increasingly important role in Australia. This has not always been the case. Historically, Indigenous Australians have been excluded from the broader economy. However, more recently, the number of Indigenous businesses has significantly increased despite the limited access to capital and lower level of education. This chapter provides a historical perspective of Indigenous entrepreneurs in Australia and argues that entrepreneurial leadership development can play a critical role in developing Indigenous entrepreneurship. The historical context of Indigenous Australians is first discussed, and the current status of Indigenous entrepreneurs in Australia is then examined. In particular, we focus on entrepreneurship among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Finally, the importance of entrepreneurial leadership development in the future landscape of Indigenous entrepreneurship in Australia is highlighted.

Abstract

This chapter focuses on exploring social innovation among Māori entrepreneurs. The notion that social entrepreneurship (SE) has always been a core part of Indigenous entrepreneurship is supported by existing literature. However, the role of Indigenous worldviews and the entrepreneurial ecosystem within which the Indigenous entrepreneur operates has been overlooked. A Case Study method was used, Case 1 was a whānau (kinship)-based social enterprise and Case 2 was a trust-based social enterprise. Both cases showed similarities in terms of cultural integration of Māoritanga into their values and how they created social innovation. Case 1 models a social engineer by designing architectural works that integrated Māori designs, but with a contemporary style that changed how the community designed projects. Case 2 also exemplified similar characteristics, but with more focus on creating economic development through community-based enterprise with a social goal using very innovative means such as community volunteering and youth engagement. Case 3 stood for a more shared-economy approach to social innovation. The entrepreneurial ecosystem is perceived by the cases quite similarly because they felt government policies were irrelevant because they did not integrate the core values of Māori. The implications of these findings are mainly policy-based because the Crown needs to re-evaulate how it engages with Māori social entrepreneurs.

Theme 3 Leadership in Tribes and Clans

Abstract

Bolivia's original Aymara and Quechua quinoa producers 1 exported 32,000 tons of hand-grown Royal Quinoa valued at $74 million in 2018. Nevertheless, they continued to fall deeper into poverty as low market prices did not cover the cost of their carefully planted, culturally driven production (IBCE, 2018, INIAF, 2018). Quinoa, now a global commodity, had seen increased competition from newly emerging quinoa growing countries with ample financial investment, improved production, and greater supply driving prices down. The more expensive, slow farming methods used by the Bolivian producers who followed traditional social, economic, and environmental sustainability practices were not valued in world markets. In Bolivia, the original quinoa homeland, once booming quinoa towns lay empty. Eighty-percent of inhabitants had moved to cities, leaving behind their native languages, traditions, and indigenous ways. Yet the culture and belief system lived on. This chapter examines Suma Qamana and how the Andean perspectives on social, economic, and environmental sustainability manifested themselves in the Bolivian experience of Aymara and Quechua quinoa producers. What follows is a story of Andean resilience in the face of globalization, and development gone awry.

Abstract

What leadership lessons in sustainability can be learned from historical clan survival stories that include elders' responses to survival events? We provide in this chapter analysis of stories of survival in which elders as leaders and advisers convey meanings and morals which serve as educative tools for their clans. The findings relate to current leadership style theories and align with principles of social, economic and environmental sustainability. By observations through an original framework and tabulation, the chapter concisely presents distilled wisdom for the management of current and future crisis events which may threaten supply chains and, consequently, short- and long-term sustainability. The findings are useful to several audiences, such as, organizational leaders, volunteers and community managers who are involved in crisis management and addressing its impact on employees and the broader community. The research also opens the pathway for academics to explore some new areas in survival management. Ultimately, we acknowledge the endeavours and achievements of our elders whose descendants we hope will appreciate the reflection of their contributions. It is the spirit of collaboration, sharing diverse experiences, as we all must do in a crisis, which we hope to learn from and share in the solutions moving forward to future events.

Theme 4 Politics and Policy in Tribal and Clan Organisations

Abstract

The Pashtun Jirga is a “tribal” conflict resolution method that has survived for centuries, with the Pashtuns, both in Afghanistan and Pakistan, still practicing it in rural communities. The chapter argues how the introduction and persistence of the Frontier Crimes Regulations, 1901, a colonial-era regulation, has undermined not only the traditional authority of the tribal elders but also diminished the importance of the Jirga. However, the tribal Pashtuns, through Jirga and Jirga-based Lashkars (tribal militias), have also occasionally supported the Pakistani military's actions against various militant groups operating in the Pashtun tribal areas, formerly known as the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. The chapter argues why, even with its positives, the Jirga still possess various loopholes that result in various gender rights violations in the Pashtun society. Finally, the chapter also discusses how recent developments in the Pashtun tribal areas, leading to their merger with the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, along with the introduction of the country's judiciary present a challenge for the survival of the Jirga as a conflict resolution tool in the tribal areas. Moreover, the chapter also argues why the young Pashtuns from the tribal region are against the male-dominated nature of Jirga and want it to be replaced with modern judicial structures, presenting a challenge to the survival of Jirga in Pakistan.

Abstract

The emergence of intrastate conflicts has not only laid bare the limitations of ‘liberal peace’ strategies but has also raised questions on the utility of such ‘top-down’ strategies in societies that use traditional methods for conflict resolution and transformation. Such limitations in liberal peace strategies have also generated interest in the utility of traditional conflict resolution and transformation methods, especially in the Global South. Using Volker Boege's framework of traditional conflict transformation and employing case studies from Papua New Guinea (PNG), Rwanda and Timor-Leste, this chapter argues why traditional methods of conflict resolution and transformation still bear relevance in societies where culture and custom play an important role in social harmony and peace. By discussing these cases and using the lessons learnt from their discussion, the chapter concludes that even with their apparent utility and use in ‘hybrid’ models of peace, such traditional methods should be employed with care and after understanding of various social, cultural and historical variables.

Abstract

On December 31, 2018, the White Earth Reservation Business Committee, or tribal council, passed Resolution Number 001-19-009 recognizing the inherent rights of wild rice. The resolution also includes a regulation entitled “Rights of Manoomin,” meaning the regulation is enforceable under tribal law (White Earth Reservation Business Committee, 2019, pp. 19–21). The Rights of Manoomin lays out the legal protections afforded to wild rice under the resolution. The Reservation Business Committee passed Resolution Number 001-19-010 the same day to support the previous resolution (White Earth Reservation Business Committee, 2019, pp. 22–26). The resolution to recognize the inherent rights of wild rice is part of a larger international movement to recognize the rights of nature (Bouayad, 2020, pp. 39–40). However, the case of the White Earth Anishinaabeg (pl.) and wild rice is different for two reasons. First, the Rights of Manoomin regulation is the first to recognize the inherent rights of a plant (LaDuke, 2019). Second, the resolution claims protection for wild rice in all the territories the Anishinaabeg ceded under the 1867 treaty with the United States government that established the reservation. In this paper, I will argue that the importance of wild rice to the Anishinaabeg and the threats it is currently under served as an impetus for the White Earth Reservation Business Committee to pass the resolutions in question.

Theme 5 Tribal and Clan Views on Health and Well-being

Abstract

Research has shown that Indigenous people suffer significant health inequalities in comparison to dominant colonising cultures. Evidence shows that these inequalities can be addressed by gaining a deeper understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health, applying Indigenous views of health and developing better definitions of the term wellbeing. The following chapter draws on research exploring the relationship between Indigenous culture, the landscape and the connection with health and wellbeing. In Aotearoa/New Zealand, consideration of Indigenous Māori is a national imperative, enshrined in the Te Tiriti o Waitangi (Treaty of Waitangi) which establishes it as a bicultural country. Exploring three Māori health models, the chapter examines the factors that play a significant role in shaping Māori people's health. It relates how landscape is a foundational therapeutic aspect of Māori wellbeing using the models to express the forces that impact both positively and negatively on this relationship. The chapter concludes that all three concepts, culture, health and landscape, are interconnected and must be balanced to reduce Māori health inequalities and to provide a more sustainable model for health and wellbeing for all New Zealanders.

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Abstract

Traditional fire practices are explored so as to understand transformative relationships to Country and as an analogy for developments in Indigenous Health. Stories of fire encompass the resistance of Indigenous Australians to colonial dispossession. Stories of fire engage Indigenous communities with law and culture and from this with health. Transformative knowledges can be built upon re-kindling Indigenous land and law practices through fire practices. Building relationships with fire and burning practices corresponds with the developing sustainable health and cultural practices across Indigenous communities.

Abstract

Spirituality is a foundational concept within African indigenous communities. Spirituality informs the socio-cultural, political, environmental and economic operating systems within these communities. It is perceived as a strength, but with the systemic debasement of the African indigenous spirituality, many systems informed by spirituality have been impacted in various ways, including the ethno-medical livelihood practices.

This chapter is based on a study that used an exploratory ethnographic case study approach with qualitative methods of data collection to explore the understanding of spirituality and its influence on well-being. The study context is Bomvanaland, in the Eastern Province of South Africa. The people of this area are called ‘amaBomvane’. The study is positioned within the social justice, constructivist interpretivist paradigm, combining Resilience theory (Mertens, 2009) with Ubuntu (an African indigenous framework), which is an African moral philosophical framework, as the influencing frameworks of the study. The study outcomes posit a practice of ethno-medical spirituality that is foundational to the identity and culture of the people who come from this area. This practice is embedded in Ubuntu, supporting resilience and well-being that carry the potential to positively influence their economies.

Index

Pages 191-194
Content available
Cover of Clan and Tribal Perspectives on Social, Economic and Environmental Sustainability
DOI
10.1108/9781789733655
Publication date
2021-03-01
Editors
ISBN
978-1-78973-366-2
eISBN
978-1-78973-365-5