Environmental and Ecological Effects Tourism is also seen as capable of disturbing and destroying environmental and ecological elements (Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development 1980). Rural landscapes may be damaged by the construction of new roads, caravan and camping sites, or obtrusive hotels. As pointed out by Hamilton “the price paid by a host community can be the loss of peace and tranquility, the desecration of shrines and artifacts, the death of a traditional culture or changes in the ecological balance” (Hamilton 1973, p. 61).
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