Information technology can either replace human effort and skill or it can complement and enhance it. Computer systems introduced into industry reflect both of these capabilities. In general, the skills replaced by computer systems in industry are mechanical/repetitive skills, although some middle managers are now being by‐passed as large centralised computer systems and networks have made communications between the centre and the periphery more direct and reduced the need for intervening filtering and interpretation. Many computer systems also complement managerial skills by aiding decision making. In the future it is possible that expert systems may replace some managerial skills, but the intuitive and experiential nature of much managerial work makes it unlikely that this replacement will be widespread.
Gunson, N. (1990), "Will sophisticated computer systems replace professional librarians or complement their skills?", Aslib Proceedings, Vol. 42 No. 11/12, pp. 303-311. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb051190
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