Because much human knowledge consists of elementary fragments of know‐how, applying a significant amount of knowledge requires new ways to organize decision‐making fragments into competent wholes. Knowledge systems collect these fragments in a knowledge base and then access the knowledge base to reason about each specific problem. As a consequence, knowledge systems differ from conventional programs in the way they're organized, the way they incorporate knowledge, the way they execute, and the impression they create through their interactions. Knowledge systems simulate expert human performance, and they present a humanlike facade to the user.
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