THE problem of the expansion of a compressible fluid with friction and heat flow is one of great complexity. In this treatment it has been simplified to a one‐dimensional problem and the resulting relationships are thermodynamic. An expansion of this type cannot be described as reversible due to the presence of friction, and from this aspect the analysis may be suspect. However, any practical process is irreversible and it is common practice to apply to such processes an analysis which is theoretically confined to changes which occur reversibly. Thus, although the degree of irreversibility may be greater than usual in this case, there are many precedents for allowing the use of reversible thermodynamics in the analysis of irreversible changes. The relations for the expansion are well known, but the writer believes the analysis and discussion on the choking conditions of a nozzle are more general than anything yet published.
Gordon Watson, W. (1955), "Nozzle Flow with Heat Transfer and Friction: One‐Dimensional Expansion of a Compressible Fluid in a Convergent Nozzle with Heat Flow and Friction", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 27 No. 10, pp. 339-345. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb032612
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