THE problem of silencing the exhaust of a piston engine requires that attention be given to the two main sources of gas noise; firstly, relatively low frequency vibrations in the exhaust column itself, excited by a pressure pulse produced by the rapid rush of gas from the cylinder into the exhaust pipe, and, secondly, high frequency vibrations resulting from eddies in the gas stream.
Kastner, L.J. (1947), "Release Process in a Four‐Stroke Engine: Theory and Experiment Applied to an Aspect of the Silencing Problem", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 19 No. 10, pp. 323-327. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb031561
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