When the flow in long pipes is considered, the frictional losses occurring before the pipe entry can usually be neglected. If thus an isentropic flow up to the pipe entry were assumed, the Grashof and Zeuner equation (A. 12) could be represented in the ψ—p plane of the dimensionless de Saint Venant and Wantzel equation (A.23). Using the dimensionless equations of Appendix II, the above plane is developed to cover adiabatic flows in general.
Lukasiewicz, J. and Inz., M. (1947), "Adiabatic Flow in Pipes: An Outline of Present Knowledge of the Flow of Perfect Gases in Ducts of Constant Cross‐Section", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 19 No. 3, pp. 86-92. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb031484
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