The formation of internal stresses is mainly caused by contraction of the material. As the magnitude of shrinkage is dependent upon many factors, it cannot be predicted with accuracy. Not only the technique and the rate of welding are of importance but also the material and the design. Finished welded components often show quite considerable reductions in their major dimensions. With larger welded structures, such as engine mountings and steel tube fuselages, which ought to have certain dimensions absolutely accurate for assembly requirements, the contraction and the distortion duo to welding should be considered in every case.
Queitsch, K. (1940), "Welding Technique in Aircraft Construction: Some Practical Hints on the Welding of Steel Tubes", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 24-26. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb030600
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